- Forest Basics -
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- Degradation Data -
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Edition 6, July 2007

Bruce Sundquist

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Key Words:
African forests, Amazon rainforest, Asian forests, Australian forests, boreal forests, Canadian forests, Central American forests, chip mills, coniferous forests, deciduous forests, deforestation, European forests, firewood, forest degradation, forest fires, forest growth, forest inventory, forest plantations, fuelwood, hardwood forests, Latin American forests, miracle trees, North American forests, paper consumption, pulpwood, rainforests, rainforest destruction, reforestation, roundwood production, Siberian forests, softwood forests, sustainable yield, temperate forests, temperate rainforests, tropical forests, timber supplies, wood exports, wood imports, wood prices.

Previous Editions: Ed.1 8/96 - Ed. 2 6/98 - Ed. 3 7/00 -Ed. 4 10/03 - Ed. 5 5/05 -


Note 1: Throughout this document, the notation (la) means that the corresponding information has been copied to a Land/ Aquatic-Area data file.
Note 2: If the system of units used in this document (normally metric) confuses you, see Chapter (7) Section (7-A).

(1) ~ FOREST DEGRADATION OVERVIEW ~ [A] Tropical Deforestation via Shifting Cultivation, [B] Tropical Deforestation via Permanent Cultivation, [C] Tropical Deforestation via Grazing, [D] Tropical Deforestation via Urbanization, [E] Temperate Deforestation, [F] Sustainable-Yield on Tropical Forests, [G] Sustainable Yield on Temperate Forests, [H] Comparison of Wood Consumption to Sustainable Yield,

(2-A) ~
Sustainable Yield ~ [A1] Global, [A2] Asian Sub-Continent, [A3] Australia, [A4] Canada,[A5] Developed Countries, [A6]~Europe, [A7]~Africa, [A8] Russia, [A9] Southeast Asia, [A10] Tropical Forests, [A11] US-Eastern, [A12] US-Western, [A13]~Plantations, [A14] Hybrid- and Genetically Modified Trees,
(2-B) ~ Forest Biomass ~ [B1] Global, [B2] Tropical Forest Biomass, [B3] Temperate Forest Biomass, [B4] Biomass Partitioning,

(2-C) ~ Effects of Diseases, Insects, Pollution, Grazing ~ [C1] Insects and Disease, [C2] Pollution, [C3] Cattle Grazing,
(2-D) ~
Aridity- and Climate-Related Issues ~ [D1] History of Climate, [D2] Precipitation Limits to Tree Survival, [D3] Savanna/ Forest Interface, [D4] Altitude Limits, [D5] Desertification,
(2-E) ~ Forest Fires and Wind Damage ~ [E1] Global, [E2] Tropical Forests, [E3] Temperate/ Boreal Forests,
(2-F) ~
Reforestation ~ [F1] Plantations, [F2] Africa, [F3] Canada, [F4] British Isles, [F5] Far East, [F6] South America, [F7]~Southeast Asia, [F8] Asian Sub-Continent, [F9] Europe, [F10] US, [F11] USSR,
(2-G) ~ Side Effects of Deforestation ~ [G1] Erosion/ Siltation/ Degradation of Croplands (various regions), [G2] Siltation of Dam-backwaters and Irrigation Systems, [G3] Water Quality Degradation, [G4] Reduced Rainfall, [G5] Floods and Landslides, [G6]~Collapse of Civilizations, [G7]~Desertification,

(3-A) ~
Global Inventory ~ [A1] General, [A2] Frontier Forests, [A3] Inventory Decrements, [A4] Plantations, [A5]~Biomass Inventory and NPP Data, [A6] WRI Table, [A7] Softwood Forests, [A8] Temperate Rainforest, [A9] Tropical Rainforest, [A10]~Protected Forests, [A11]~Developing Countries, [A12] Boreal Forests, [A13] Mangrove Forests, [A14] Bamboo Forests, [A15]~Growing Stock,
(3-B) ~ Asia ~ [B1] General, [B2] Middle East, [B3] Asian Sub-Continent, [B4] Southeast Asia, [B5] Far East, [B6]~Central Asia,
(3-C) ~ Africa ~ [C1] General, [C2] North Africa, [C3] West Africa, [C4] East Africa, [C5] Southern Africa, [C6] Sahel, [C7]~Central Africa,
(3-D) ~ North America ~ [D1] Alaska, [D2] Canada, [D3] United States, [D4] US - Western, [D5] US -Eastern, [D6]~Long-leafed Pine, [D7]~Pinyon-Juniper, [D8] Rocky Mountains, [D9] Southeastern US,
(3-E) ~ South and Central America ~ [E1] Latin America, [E2] Central America, [E3] Tropical Andes Mountains, [E4]~Amazon Basin, [E5]~Brazil, [E6] South America,
(3-F) ~ Europe, Australia and Oceania ~ [F1] Europe in General, [F2] Southern Europe, [F3] Northern Europe, [F4] Australia, [F5]~Oceania, [F6]~New Zealand,

(4-A) ~
Global Overview ~
(4-A-a) ~
General ~ [Aa1] Cumulative Deforestation, [Aa2] Deforestation in the 1970s and before, [Aa3] Deforestation in the 1980s, [Aa4]~Deforestation in the 1990s, [Aa5] Montane Watersheds, [Aa6] Temperate Rainforests, [Aa7] Mangrove Forests, [Aa8]~Plantations,
(4-A-b) ~ Shifting Cultivation ~ [Ab1] Global, [Ab2] Africa, [Ab3] Asia, [Ab4] Asian Sub-Continent, [Ab6] Latin America (+Brazil), [Ab7]~Less-Developed Countries (LCDs), [Ab8] Southeast Asia,
(4-A-c) ~ Conversion to Grazing Lands, Croplands and Aquaculture ~ [Ac1] Global, [Ac2] Africa, [Ac3] South America, [Ac4]~Central America, [Ac5] Southeast Asia, [Ac6] Latin America, [Ac7] Oceania, [Ac8] Scotland, [Ac9] US,
(4-A-d) ~ Firewood- and Charcoal Production ~ [Ad1] Global, [Ad2] Tropical Nations, [Ad3] Africa, [Ad4] Asian Sub-Continent, [Ad5]~South America, [Ad6] Far East, [Ad7]~US,
(4-A-e) ~ Urbanization - [Ae1] Global, [Ae2] Africa, [Ae3] Asia, [Ae4] Latin America, [Ae5]~North America,
(4-B) ~
Asia ~ [B1] Brief Summary, [B2] Asian Sub-Continent, [B3] Southeast Asia, [B4] Soviet Union (former),
(4-C) ~ Africa ~ [C1] Summary, [C2] Eastern Africa, [C3] Southern Africa, [C4] West Africa, [C5] Central Africa,
(4-D) ~ North America ~ [D1] Alaska, [D2] California, [D3] Canada, [D4] Long-leafed Pine, [D5] Midwestern US, [D6] Pinion Juniper, [D7] Pacific Northwest US, [D8] Riparian Habitats-W.US, [D9] US, [D10] Northeastern US, [D11] Southern US,
(4-E) ~ South- and Central America ~ [E1] Summary Table, [E2] Amazon Basin, [E3] Northern South America, [E4]~Andean Mountain Region, [E5] Brazil, [E6]~Central America, [E7] Caribbean, [E8] Mexico, [E9] Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay,
(4-F) ~
Europe, Australia and Oceania ~ [F1] Australia, [F2] Europe, [F3] Oceania,

(5-A) ~
Economics-General ~
[A1] Global (Prices, fuel-wood economics, high-yield forestry, Reservoir-Siltation Costs, Energy Costs of Basic Materials), [A2]~Alternative uses of Rain-forest, [A3] Jobs-Related Issues, [A4] Wasting Wood, [A5] South America, [A6] Canada, [A7]~Europe, [A8]~Asian Sub-Continent, [A9] Southeast Asia, [A10] Oceania, [A11] US, [A12] Plantations, [A13] Non-Wood Forest Products,
(5-B) ~ Production and Consumption ~ [B1] Global -([1a] Roundwood, [1b] Pulp and Paper, [1c] Fuel-wood/ charcoal, [1d]~Plantations), [B2] Africa-Fuelwood, [B3] Southeast Asia, [B4] Canada, [B5] South America, [B6] Far East, [B7]~Developing Countries, [B8]~Asian Sub-Continent, [B9] Central Asia, [B10] Pacific NW, [B11] US - Eastern, [B12] US - Southern, [B13]~US - All, [B14]~Developed Countries,
(5-C) ~
Exports and Imports ~ [C1] Global, [C2] Africa, [C3] Australia, [C4] Asian Sub-Continent, [C5] Canada, [C6] South America, [C7]~Developing Countries, [C8] Far East, [C9] Europe, [C10] Southeast Asia, [C11] Oceania, [C12] Central Asia, [C13]~US,

(6-A) ~
Politics, General ~ [A1] Global, [A2] Alaska, [A3] Canada, [A4] Latin America, [A5] Southeast Asia, [A6] US,
(6-B) ~ Politics-Subsidies ~ [B1] General, [B2] Alaska, [B3] Amazon Basin, [B4] Canada, [B5] South America, [B6] Europe, [B7]~Southeast Asia, [B8] US, [B9]~Soviet Union (former),
(6-C) ~ Forest Law ~ [C1] Africa, [C2] Asian Sub-Continent, [C3] Southeast Asia, [C4] Oceania, [C5] US, [C6]~South America
(6-D) ~ History ~ [D1] Global, [D2] Africa, [D3] China, [D4] Easter Island, [D5] Europe, [D6] Latin America, [D7]~Asian Sub-Continent, [D8]~Middle East, [D9] North America,
(6-E) ~ Illegal/ Corrupt Practices ~ [E1] Global, [E2] Developing World, [E3] South America, [E4] Southeast Asia, [E5]~Africa, [E6]~Asian Sub-Continent, [E7]~Oceania, [E8] US, [E9] Russia,

(7-A) ~
Units Conversions - Precise ~ [A1] Lengths, [A2] Areas, [A3] Weights, [A4] Volumes,
(7-B) ~ Units Conversions - Imprecise ~ [B5] logs to lumber, [B6] Wood to Charcoal, [B7] Wood to Energy, [B8] Paper to Paper (recycling), [B9]~Wood to Paper, [B10] Water to Paper, [B11] Biomass to Carbon,
(7-C) ~ Densities ~
(7-D) ~
Definitions ~
(7-E) ~
Information Sources and Organizations on Forest Land Degradation ~
(7-F) ~ Databases ~

(8) - REFERENCES - [A] Before 1980, [B] 1980 - 1982, [C] 1983 - 1985, [D] 1986 - 1988, [E] 1989 - 1991, [F] 1992 - 1994, [G]~1995 - 1997, [H] 1998 - 2000, [I] 2001 -2003, [J] 2004 - 2006, [K] 2007-2009,

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