~ CHAPTER 3 ~ (Continued)
INVENTORY OF FOREST RESOURCES
Edition 6, July, 2007

CONTENTS of the second half of this Chapter 3 file:
NOTE: The first half of this file is in
(df3.html) 

(3-C) ~ Africa ~[C1] General, [C2] North Africa, [C3] West Africa, [C4] East Africa, [C5]~Southern Africa, [C6]~ Sahel, [C7]~Central Africa,
(3-D) ~ North America - [D1] Alaska, [D2] Canada, [D3] US, [D4] US - Western, [D5]~US - Eastern, [D6]~Long-leafed Pine, [D7]~Pinyon-Juniper, [D8] Rocky Mountains, [D9] Southeast,
(3-E) ~ South and Central America ~ [E1] Latin America, [E2] Central America, [E3]~Tropical Andes Mountains, [E4]~Amazon Basin, [E5]-Brazil, [E6] South America,
(3-F) ~ Europe, Australia and Oceania ~ [F1] Europe in General, [F2] Southern Europe, [F3]~Northern Europe, [F4]~Australia, [F5]~Oceania, [F6]~New Zealand, ~
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SECTION (3-C) ~ Forest Inventory of Africa ~ [C1] General, [C2] North Africa, [C3] West Africa, [C4]~ Eastern Africa, [C5]~ Southern Africa, [C6] Sahel, [C7] Central Africa,

Part [C1] ~ Forest Inventory of Africa ~ General ~

Africa loses 4.0 million hectares (40,000 km2) annually (05F1).

In Africa, 520,000 km2 of forest were destroyed in the 1990s (02U1). Comments: "destroyed" might mean cut (a temporary change), or it might mean converted to other uses such as urban areas or grazing lands (a permanent change).

400,000 km2 of Africa's rain forest may be subject to shifting cultivation (Ref. 19 of (81B1)).

Some 6% (1.8 million km2) of Africa's land area is closed forest (88B1). (la)

Africa is the least forested of the three major tropical areas (88B1).

Some 88% of Africa's closed forest is tropical moist forest in Central and West Africa (81B1).

The area of Africa's open woodlands is about 3 times the area of Africa's closed forest (81B1).

Nearly 4 million km2 of Africa now qualify as "forest/ cropland mosaics" where cropland accounts for 30-40% of the vegetation cover ((00W1), p. 90). (la)

Tropical forests of the East African coast once stretched from Somalia to Mozambique (C. Bolgar, Wall Street Journal, 3/7/96).

A map of Africa's forests and croplands is in Ref. (00W1), p. 95.

A map of present- and original forests of west-central Africa is in Ref. (94C2).

Forests of sub-Saharan Africa cover 1.7 million km2 in 14 countries (94C2). (la)

Humid Tropical Forest Areas in Africa in 1980, and annual rates of deforestation for 1976-1980 and 1981-1985 (km2 and km2/ year) (91D1) (la)
Country - - - - -| ~Area~ |Deforestation
- - - - - - - - -| -(km2)-|76-80|1981-85
Angola ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~29,000| ~400| ~440
Benin~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~ 470| ~ 15| ~ 12
Cameroon ~ ~ ~ ~ | 179,200| ~800| ~800
Cent. Afr. Repub.| ~35,900| ~ 50| ~ 50
Congo~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 213,400| ~220| ~220
Ivory Coast~ ~ ~ | ~44,580| 3100| 2900
Equatorial Guinea| ~12,950| ~ 25| ~ 30
Gabon~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 205,000| ~150| ~150
Ghana~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~17,180| ~270| ~220
Guinea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~20,500| ~360| ~360
Guinea Bissau~ ~ | ~ 6,600| ~150| ~170
Kenya~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 6,900| ~110| ~110
Liberia~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~20,000| ~510| ~460
Madagascar ~ ~ ~ | 103,000| 1650| 1500
Nigeria~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~59,500| 2850| 3000
Reunion~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 1,000| - - | - -
Senegal~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 2,200| - - | - -
Sierra Leone ~ ~ | ~ 7,400| ~ 58| ~ 60
Tanzania ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~14,400| ~100| ~100
Togo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 3,040| ~ 20| ~ 21
Uganda ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 7,500| ~100| ~100
Zaire~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |1,056500| 1650| 1800
Totals ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |2,046220|12690|12500

Part [C2] ~ Forest Inventory ~ North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) ~

Sub Part [C2a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ North Africa - Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia ~

Forests that once covered a third of the total area of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia have been reduced to perhaps 11% of the area by around 1950. Though major reforestation programs are being attempted throughout North Africa, losses still outpace gains (76E1).

Ref.(60M1) gives maps of forested regions of northern Morocco as of 1960 and as of much earlier times. Less than 10% of Morocco's forestlands remain (60M1).

Part [C3] ~ Forest Inventory ~ West Africa (Benin, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cote D'Ivoire, (The) Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone) ~

Sub Part [C3a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ West Africa - Cote D'Ivoire ~
Around 1967 there were 200,000 km2 of rainforest in Cote D'Ivoire (92R1) (150,000 in 1965 (87B1)).
Around 1991 there were 10,000 km2 of rainforest in Cote D'Ivoire (92R1). (la)

Sub Part [C3b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ West Africa - Ghana ~
In 1938, Ghana had 46,600 km2 of forests (90M1). (la)
In 1981, Ghana had 16,800 km2 of forests (90M1).

Since 1981, deforestation in Ghana has been 2%/ year (7.5 km2/ year) (97U2).
Ghana's tropical forest area is 25% of its original size (97U2).

Part [C4] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Eastern Africa [C4a] Ethiopia, [C4b] Kenya (Nyasaland), [Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania) ~

Sub Part [C4a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Eastern Africa - Ethiopia ~ 
The Ethiopian Plateau receives good rainfall, and was once 75% forested (75E1).(Obsolete data - for historical purposes only.)
Significant stands of timber now cover less than 4% of the Ethiopian Plateau (75E1). (la)

Ethiopia's forest cover: 40% initially, 16% in 1967, 3.1% in 1986 (Ref. 9 of (87E2)). (la)

Sub Part [C4b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Eastern Africa - Kenya ~
Forest cover is less than 3% of Kenya's land area (80F2). Kenya's Arabuko-Sokoke Forest has dwindled to about 414 km2 due to land clearing for crops and firewood (80F2).

Part [C5] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe) ~

Sub Part [C5a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Africa - Madagascar ~
Ref. (56B1) cites references supporting the claim that Madagascar has become the typical and best-studied example of the destruction of tropical flora by fire, primitive agriculture and grazing. Madagascar is now largely deforested. The entire island of Madagascar (600,000 km2) formerly had been forest except for the arid district of the extreme southwest, which had probably always been low thorn-scrub (56B1).

Some 95% of the original 590,000 km2 of Madagascar's rainforest has been destroyed by clearing operations for raising cash crops for exports to France, Japan and the US (80N1).

Once 80% forested, 10% of Madagascar's forest remains (89U3), (92R1).

Madagascar's original tropical forest area = 62,000 km2; (currently 10,000 km2) (91W1).

In 1900 at least 25% of Madagascar was forested (89K1).
Around 1988 13% of Madagascar was forested (89K1).

Some 72% of Madagascar's original eastern rain forest was on slopes of less than 5 degrees. In 1985, 6.3% of the rain forest was on slopes of under 1o, and 26.7% of the forest on slopes of under 5 degrees had survived. Forest area is plotted vs. slope for original forest, 1950 forest and 1985 forest (90G1).

Madagascar's eastern rain forest originally covered 112,000 km2. In 1950 it covered 76,000 km2. In 1985 it covered 38,000 km2 (90G1). (Madagascar's total area is 587,000 km2). Forests are threatened mainly by subsistence needs and cutting for fuel (Ref. 10-12 of (90G1)). (la)

Sub Part [C5b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Africa - Zimbabwe ~
1000 km2 of plantations supply virtually all of Zimbabwe's domestic wood needs, plus an exportable surplus (Ref. 43 of (88P1)).

Part [C6] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Sahel (Burkina Faso, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal) ~

Sub Part [C6a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Sahel - Mauritania ~
Forests that once covered 3% of Mauritania has been reduced to a 2% coverage in less than a decade due to charcoal production (88L1). Only 0.2% of Mauritania's 1,000,000 km2 is arable (88L1) (la). Comments: The aridity probably explains the small amount of arable land.

Part [C7] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central Africa (Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia (Namibia)) ~

The rainforests of the Congo Basin stretch over some 2 million km2 (494 million acres) and 6 central African states. Only the Amazon has a larger tropical forest area ("African Loggers Begin to See the Light in Forests", Planet Ark, 2/28/05).

Sub Part [C7a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central Africa - Zambia ~
The 450 km2 of pine- and eucalyptus plantations are expected to meet Zambia's timber needs through 2000 (Ref. 43 of (88P1)).

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SECTION (3-D) ~ Forest Inventory of North America ~ [D1] Alaska, [D2] Canada, [D3] US, [D4]~ US - Western, [D5] US - Eastern, [D6]-Long-leafed Pine, [D7] Pinyon-Juniper, [D8] Rocky Mountains, [D9]~ Southeast,~

Total forest loss for North America and Central America in the 1990s: 60,000 km2 (02U1). Comments: "loss" probably means conversion to other land uses.

Part [D1] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Alaska ~

A rainforest spans 1000 miles of Southeast Alaska coast. This largest temperate rainforest on Earth includes the US's largest national forest; the Tongass (94A1).

100 million acres (405,000 km2) of Alaska are forested, but only 15 million acres (61,000 km2) are considered "commercial" (available and capable of producing industrial volumes of wood) (Forest Watch, 7/91). (la)

In the Prince of Wales project on the Tongass National Forest, 220 million bf. of timber will be extracted from 300,000 acres (1200 km2) by the end of 1997 (97D2).

The Tongass Land Management Plan released by the USFS in May 1997 calls for timber sales of 267 million bf. in 1997 - double the volume of 1996 and far more than in any recent year. USFS chief Michael Dombeck said that figure is not a target and that harvests won't exceed demand (97D2).

Part [D2] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Canada

Canada's boreal forest (see map in article) covers 35% of Canada's entire land mass (Wall Street Journal, 12/15/00). (la)

Canada manages 10% of the world's forests and 14% of the global softwood inventory and provides 50% of the global export market of softwood lumber and 56% of newsprint exports (96K1).

Canada has 10% of the world's forests (95A2). (la)
75% (10 million km2) of Canada's forest is boreal forest (95A2). (la)
A map of forest classifications of Canada is found in Journal of Forestry, 9/78, p. 558. (Classifications are: Boreal - predominantly forest; Boreal - forest and grassland; Boreal - forest and barren; Sub-alpine; Montane; Coastal; Columbia; Deciduous; Great Lakes; Acadian; Grasslands; Tundra).

Canada is losing forests at 2000 km2/ year (98B2).

Sub Part [D2a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Canada - British Columbia (BC) ~
British Columbia decadent or stagnant forest area = 94,750 km2 (mature timber with a high proportion of decayed wood, forests infected with pests or disease, immature stands commonly resulting from wildfires and subsequent over-stocking) (80W2).

The Ministry of Forests manages 860,000 km2 of British Columbia's 950,000 km2. 470,000 km2 are productive forestland (80W3).

474,000 km2 of British Columbia's 950,000 km2 are productive forest regulated by the Ministry of Forests. An additional 48,600 km2 are private forests (80W2). Of these 474,000 km2 of productive Crown forestland, 258,000 support mature forests, 188,000 support immature forest, and 28,000 are classed as non-commercial forest (80W2).

British Columbia's gross productive forest land base (474,130 km2) is expected to be reduced over 20 years to 370,290 km2 due to alienation of rural lands adjacent to settled areas (19,960 km2), economically inaccessible areas (10,590 km2), environmental allowances (47,520 km2) and added withdrawals external to settled areas (25,780 km2) (80W2).

British Columbia's forest (growing stock??) inventory is 6.3 billion m3 of mature timber on Crown-regulated forestland (80W2).

Less than 40% of BC's ancient coastal rainforest still stand (93D3).

In BC's rainforests, only one of 25 large coastal watersheds has wholly escaped logging (Ref. 9 of (92R1)).

In the early 1970s, BC contained 50% of the commercially available forest resources of Canada (83S1).

Sub Part [D2b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Canada - Manitoba ~
Manitoba's forests (257,308 km2) contain 358.89 million m3 of coniferous timber, and 111.1 million m3 of deciduous timber for a total of 469.98 million m3 (1827 m3/km2). 52.3% is productive forest, 38.4% is non-productive forest, and 9.3% is non-forest (75K2).

Manitoba area: 650,364 km2 (84.1% land (546,956 km2), 15.9% water). 29.4% of total land area (160,805 km2) is productive forestland; 33.9% of total land area (185,418 km2) is non-productive forestland, 36.7% of total land area (200,733 km2) is non-forested land (75K2).

Sub Part [D2c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Canada - New Brunswick ~
New Brunswick had 607,290 km2 of forest around 1975 (77B2), 283,400 of which are government-controlled (77B2).

Part [D3] ~ Forest Inventory ~ United States ~

The US has gained 10 million acres of forests since 1990. The increase is probably temporary. Growth is concentrated in the Northeast and Rocky Mountain states, while wooded acres dwindled in the South, Midwest and Pacific Coast. Over the past 50 years, according to the US Forest Service, 24 states added woodland, 7 of them more than a million acres each. New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania were the biggest gainers. Texas, Florida and California lost the most. The US is a bright spot in a world that's losing its forests. Worldwide, 235 million acres of trees vanished in the past decade. Africa and South America lost the most, while Europe and China gained. China is adding 4.5 million acres of trees per year under a massive reforestation program. When European settlers began to colonize America they cut down trees for fuel and farmland, and a long, slow decline of forests began that hit bottom in 1920, when only 735 million acres of woodlands were left and 370 million acres of trees had been taken. The main reason was the switch from a country based on agriculture to an industrial economy. Large, efficient farms replaced millions of smallholdings and machinery took over from horses and mules, which needed cropland for their food. Government policies have helped. A belt of trees was planted from the Canadian to Mexican borders under the Soil Bank program of the 1950s to prevent a return of the Dust Bowl. More trees are growing now than are being cut down and as a result, the area covered by forests has risen from 735 million to 749 million acres. Trees occupy one-third of the nation's territory. Only 10% of the land in Ohio was forested in 1910. Today trees cover more than 30%, although the population has more than doubled. New York has 6 million more acres of forest than it did in 1920. Pennsylvania gained 4.4 million acres. Almost 90% of Maine is tree-covered, up from 62% a century ago. Texas has lost 8 million acres since 1920, and Florida almost 4 million. The Forest Service projects that all areas of the US will lose woodlands by 2050. By that time, the US will have 150 million more people and 23 million fewer acres of forest ("Forest Comeback Not Expected to Last", Duluth Tribune, 2/11/05).

The US gained 40,000 km2 of forest in the 1990s (02U1).

History of Forest Cover (million km2) in the Contiguous US (88P1) (97B2) (la)
Year | 1630| 1920| 1963| 1982| 1990 |1995
Cover| 3.85| 2.49| 2.56| 2.33| 2.096|2.125
Comments: These numbers probably pertain to commercial timberlands.

The 10 largest timber companies in the US collectively own more than 38 million acres of timberland in the US - over 50% of all industry lands, but fewer than 8% of the total US timber base. (Forest Watch, 7/91) (A breakdown by company of the 38 million acres is tabulated in the article.)

Commercial timberlands of the US peaked in 1960 at 515 million acres (Forest Watch, 7/91). Forestlands of the US peaked in 1960 at 615 million acres. These two values have declined to 483 and 565 million acres currently. About half the decline is due to urbanization and half due to parks, Wilderness, etc. (Forest Watch, 7/91).

Some 2.98 million km2 of the US is forestland, down by 1.24 million km2 from 1600 (94P2).
Some 1.98 million km2 is US timberland - forestland capable of producing more than 20 ft3/ acre/ year (140 m3/ km2/ year) and not withdrawn from timber production (94P2). (la)

UNFAO (1998) showed that, of a total area of 2.981 million km2 of forests in the US, 1.227 million are inaccessible for wood supply and 192,000 are legally protected areas, giving a net supply of 1.562 million km2. This is 300-350,000 km2 less than timberland area used in one major USFS projection (Haynes et al (1995) in (99N1)).

One study found that 10-15% of US coniferous forests are not available to industrial use (99N1).

Since 1952 US timberland area has decreased 4% (78000 km2) - primarily by reclassification to non-timber-harvest uses (94P2).

US forestland increased 0.1% between 1987-92 (94P2).
US forestland (1970): 3.05 million km2 (Ref. 3, (76S1)),
US commercial timberland (1970): 2.02 million km2 (76S1).

About 80,000 km2 of US productive timberland is currently used for parks, wilderness areas and other purposes not compatible with harvesting trees for timber (76S1). (la)

A map showing locations of US forests is in Ref. (82W1).

Ref. (80H1), Table 6.16, gives ownership of growing stock and sawtimber in the US (1/1/77) for softwood and hardwoods (national forest, other public forests, forest-industry land, farmers- and other private forests). Table 6.14 of Ref. (80H1) gives timber inventories on US commercial timberland by class of material and materials group (including pole timber, salvageable dead trees, rough trees, rotten trees, upper stems). Table 6.15 gives the same basic data by region of the country (north, south, Pacific coast, Rocky Mountains and Great Plains).

Growing stock volume on US timberland increased by 2.6% between 1987-92. Since 1952, net volume/ acre increased 33%. Net growing stock volume of US hardwoods increased 7% between 1987-92, and by 82% between 1952-92 (94P2). Net volume of US softwoods increased by 4% between 1952-92, but decreased by 0.7% between 1987-92 (94P2). Volume of hardwoods in diameter classes over 19" doubled between 1952-92 (26-52 billion ft3) (0.74-1.47 billion m3) (94P2). Volume of softwood in diameter classes over 19" declined 30% during 1952-92.

Softwood- and hardwood inventories declined on southern US forest-industry lands during 1987-92 - the first time since 1952 (94P2). For the South as a whole, the volume of standing softwood inventory declined 2.5% during 1987-92 - the first such decline since at least 1952 (94P2). In the South, softwood removals exceeded growth by 14% in 1991 - the first time since 1952 that softwood removals exceeded growth (94P2).

Area of US Commercial Timberland by Ownership (1/77) (Table 6.13, (80H1))
- - Acres -| ~ -(km2)| Ownership Category
~88,718,300| (359,182| national forest lands
~ 5,802,800| ( 23,493| BLM lands
~ 4,889,300| ( 19,795| other federal forest lands
~23,415,300| ( 94,799| state forest lands 
~ 6,834,100| ( 27,668| county forest lands
~ 6,061,800| ( 24,542| Indian forest lands
~68,782,200| (278,470| timber industry lands
115,777,100| (468,733| farmer-owned forest lands
102,205,000| (413,785| other private lands
482,485,900|(1953,385| Total

Eastern US Forest lands by ecosystem (Table 2.7, (80H1))
- - Acres - | ~ ~-(km2)| Ecosystem
~383,738,700|(1553,598)| Total
~113,762,200|( 460,576)| oak/hickory
~ 38,750,800|( 156,886)| maple/beech/birch
~ 20,430,300| ( 82,714)| aspen/birch
~ 21,224,000| ( 85,927)| fir/spruce
~ 12,261,400| ( 49,641)| white-, red- jack pine
~ 17,060,000| ( 69,069)| long-leafed- and slash pine
~ 50,384,500|( 203,986)| Loblolly-shortleaf pine
Comments: The same table breaks these figures down by state and region.

US Commercial Timberland by Region (1/1/77) (Table 6.13, (80H1))
- - -Acres~ |- - -(km2)|Region
~151,635,300| (613,908)|North
~199,947,700| (809,505)|South
~ 60,368,800| (244,408)|Rocky Mountains. and Great Plains
~ 70,534,100| (285,563)|Pacific Coast
~482,485,900|(1953,385)|Total

Western US Forest Area by Ecosystem (Table 2.9, (80H1))
~- - Acres~ |- - -(km2)| Ecosystem
~355,150,800|(1437,858)| total
~ 38,505,208|( 155,892)| Douglas fir
~ 33,736,400|( 136,585)| Ponderosa pine
~113,378,100|( 459,021)| fir-spruce
~ 39,704,000|( 160,745)| western hardwoods
~ 15,477,000| ( 62,660)| chaparral
~ 47,305,000|( 191,518)| pinyon-juniper
~ ~7,087,900|(( 28,696)| non-stocked lands
(Table 2.9 also breaks these figures down by state and region.)

US forest areas by timber-productivity (Table 2.4, (80H1))
- - Acres - |- - -(km2)| Productivity
~736,558,400|(2982,018)| total
~ 47,275,500|( 191,399)| 120+ ft3/acre/ year
~ 98,946,000|( 400,591)| 85-120ft3/acre/ year
~200,146,600|( 810,310)| 50- 85ft3/acre/ year
~136,117,800|( 551,084)| 20- 50ft3/acre/ year
~228,782,100|( 926,243)| ~0- 20ft3/acre/ year #
~ ~4,626,200|(( 18,730)| production deferred
~ 20,604,200|(( 83,418)| production reserved

# non-commercial
(Table 2.4 also breaks these numbers down by section, region and state.)

Table 2.5 of Ref. (80H1) gives US forest area by timber-productivity class and ecosystem.

US forest land areas by ownership category (Table 2.3 of Ref. (80H1))
- - - Acres |- - - (km2)| Ownership
~141,824,600|( 574,189 )| USFS-managed
~114,184,400|( 462,285 )| BLM-managed
~ 29,515,500|( 119,496 )| Other federal agency-managed
~451,033,900|(1826,048 )| non-federal forest land
~736,558,400|(2982,018 )| Totals

Commercial Timberland in the US (in millions of acres) (81W1)
Forest Ownership~ ~ | 1952| 1962| 1970| 1977
National Forests~ ~ | 94.7| 96.9| 94.7| 88.7
Other Public~ ~ ~ ~ | 49.0| 46.8| 46.9| 47.0
Forest Industry ~ ~ | 59.5| 61.6| 67.0| 68.7
Farm / Misc. Private|296.1|304.1|287.8|278.0
Totals~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |499.3|509.4|496.4|482.4 @
Totals~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |2020.|2060.|2010.|1950. #
@ million acres # 1000 km2
These figures are broken down by state in Table 2 of Ref. (81W1).

US commercial timberland decreased steadily until 1920 as land was cleared for cropland, pasture, cities and roads. From 1920-62, commercial timberlands increased by 50 million acres to 509 million acres as worked-out cotton fields in the South, some eastern farms, and some poorer farms elsewhere reverted to forest. During 1962-77, commercial timberlands declined 5% to 482 million acres (1.95 million km2). Projections to 2030 give 446 million acres (1.81 million km2) (81W1).

During 1962-70, 12,000 km2 of former agricultural land was converted to forest in the US mid-Atlantic states, while 30,000 km2 of forest was cleared, largely for farming in the South (76S1).

In 1970, net growth (excluding harvest) of US commercial forests was 18.6 billion ft3/ year (527 million m3/ year), not counting 4.5 billion ft3/ year (127 million m3/ year) of mortality-loss (76S1) (399 million m3/ year including mortality losses).

Area of Commercial and Non-Commercial forestland in the US (79C1)
(Areas (Columns 2 and 3) are in millions of acres.)
(Sawtimber inventories (Col. 4) and net growth (Col. 5) are in billion board.feet and billion board-feet/ year.)
(Growing Stock Inventory (Col. 6) is in billion ft3 and million m3.)
Year|Comm.|Non~ |Standing |Sawtimber|Growing
- - |Comm.|Comm.|Sawtimber|Growth ~ |Stock
1630| 850 | 100 | 7625~ ~ | ????~ ~ |???? |(?)
1907| 580 | ??? | 2500~ ~ | ????~ ~ |???? |(?)
1920| 464 | 150 | 2215~ ~ | ~9.7~ ~ | 6.0 |(170)
1930| 495 | 120 | 1668~ ~ | 11.7~ ~ | 8.9 |(252)
1938| 462 | 168 | 1764~ ~ | 32.0~ ~ |11.3 |(320)
1944| 461 | 163 | 1601~ ~ | 35.3~ ~ |13.4 |(379)
1952| 595 | 163 | 2412~ ~ | 45.1~ ~ |13.9 |(394)
1962| 508 | ??? | 2430~ ~ | 52.3~ ~ |16.4 |(464)
1970| 500 | 254 | 2421~ ~ | 60.0~ ~ |18.1 |(513)
1977| 488 | 252 | 2569~ ~ | 73.6~ ~ |21.9 |(620)
Comments: For comparison, the land area of the 48 states is 1904 million acres (7.708 million km2) (79C1).

Net Volume (million ft3) of growing stock on US timberlands (94P2)
Year - -| ~ 1992 | ~ 1987 | ~ 1977 | ~ 1962 | ~ 1952
Softwood| 449,895| 452,914| 466,960| 449,760| 431,794
Hardwood| 335,722| 312,626| 266,096| 215,840| 184,090
Total ~ | 785,617| 765,540| 733,056| 665,600| 615,884
Comments: There appears to be a major discrepancy between this table and the table above -easily a factor of 35. Could this be a units error?

Net Volume of timber and growing stock on US timberlands (1992) (94P2)
All Timber ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~| Growing Stock
~Total -|Softwood|Hardwood|Total~ |Softwood|Hardwood
~857,565|473,215 |384,349 |785,617|449,895 |335,722 *
~ 24,285| 13,401 | 10,884 | 22,248| 12,741 | ~9,507 #
# million m3: * million ft3

US Forest land area by productivity class, 1992 (94P2)
(Line 1 is in units of 1000 acres.)
(Line 2 is in units of 1000 km2.)
~ Total | Productivity Class (cu. ft./acre/ year)
~ Area~ |120+~ |85-120 | 50-85 | 20-50 | 0-20~ |Reserved
~736,681|65,541|101,179|175,375|147,158|199,960|47,467
~ ~2,983| ~ 265| ~ ~410| ~ ~710| ~ ~596| ~ ~810| ~ 192

Net Volume (billion ft3) of Softwood Growing Stock on US Timberlands (94P2)
Year|Total|5.0 |7.0 |9.0 |11. |13. |15. |17. |19. |21. |29.+
- - | ~ ~ | 6.9| 8.9|10.9|12.9|14.9|16.9|18.9|20.9|28.9| -
1992|449.9|33.5|49.6|53.1|52.3|45.2|37.2|30.3|23.8|60.1| 64.1
1987|452.9|34.4|49.8|54.1|51.5|44.4|37.1|30.3|24.0|61.3| 66.2
1977|467.0|40.4|49.8|51.0|47.8|41.8|35.4|29.1|24.0|66.3| 81.5
1962|449.8|35.5|40.8|42.2|40.9|36.3|32.0|27.2|23.3|69.0|102.4
1952|431.8|28.3|33.9|35.7|35.7|31.7|28.9|25.0|22.2|70.0|120.3

Net Volume (billion ft3) of Hardwood Growing Stock on US Timberlands (94P2)
Year|Total|5.0 |7.0 |9.0 |11. |13. |15. |17. |19. |21. |29+
- - |- - -| 6.9| 8.9|10.9|12.9|14.9|16.9|18.9|20.9|28.9| -
1992|335.7|32.1|46.3|52.9|49.6|43.5|34.5|25.3|17.3|27.5|6.7
1987|312.6|34.0|46.3|50.6|46.8|39.9|30.8|21.8|14.3|22.5|5.5
1977|266.1|34.7|43.0|44.6|38.6|32.7|24.6|16.9|10.9|16.6|3.6
1962|215.8|28.4|35.0|35.9|30.9|26.0|19.2|13.6| 9.2|14.7|3.1
1952|184.1|22.2|28.2|30.0|25.8|22.6|17.0|12.5| 8.4|14.4|3.0

Average potential productivity of US commercial forestlands: 520 m3/ km2/ year. Current net growth of the 2 million km2 of US commercial timberland is 270 m3/ km2/ year, i.e. 530 million m3/ year for the US (76S1). Comments: The estimate of potential productivity comes from yield tables. In Sweden, actual yield under intensive management is 90% of the yield estimated from yield tables (Ref. 5 of (76S1)), so the potential figure given above should probably be reduced by 10% to be more realistic.

The estimate of US potential net growth of 80 ft3/ acre/ year (560 m3/ km2/ year) is for the merchantable stem only. Were the stump, bark, and branches utilized as well, the potential yield would be 110 ft3/ acre/ year (800 m3/ km2/ year) or 358 tonnes/ km2/ year (76S1).

737 million acres (2.98 million km2) of the US (including Alaska) are classified as forestland (at least 10% stocked with forest trees or formerly had such cover and are not currently used otherwise) (80H1). 482 million acres (1.95 million km2) are commercial timber land (capable of producing over 20 ft3/ acre/ year in natural stands and not withdrawn for other uses) (80H1). The USFS manages 19% of US forestland. Other federal agencies manage 19% of the forests (80H1).

Total Area of Land, Forest, Range, Water, etc. by State and Region (Table 2.1, (80H1)) (la)
(includes Alaska, Hawaii) Areas in billions of acres (Col. 3 is in millions of km2)
Total land and water~ | 2.361~ |(9.599)
Total land~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 2.255~ |(9.130)
Total forest and range| 1.557~ |(6.304)
Total forest~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.737~ |(2.984)
Total range ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.820~ |(3.320)
Other land~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.6982 |(2.827)
Total water area~ ~ ~ | 0.1067 |(0.432)

Figure 2.3 of Ref. (80H1) gives a map showing percent forest-cover in each US state.

Ref. (81B1) gives a table of North American forest resources as of the early 1970s (for US and Canada separately) (stocked commercial forest, inaccessible productive forest, reserved forest (parks, etc.), non-stocked commercial forest, open woodlands, growing stock, net annual growth, felling rate).

Ref. (79M1) gives data, by state, on total forest- and range area, cropland area, improved pasture area, urban area, and water area. National summaries are given in the table below.

US Land-use Statistics (79F1) (50 States//48 States): (million acres and 1000 km2)
Category- - - - -|mill.|1000 | ~ ~ ~|/million|1000
- - - - - - - - -|acres|km2~ | ~% ~ |/acres~ |km2

Cropland ~ ~ ~ ~ | 465 |1883|(20.5%)|/ 465~ |1883
Grassland/pasture| 598 |2421|(26.4%)|/ 595~ |2409
Forest lands ~ ~ | 718 |2907|(31.7%)|/ 598~ |2421
Special uses ~ ~ | 182 | 737|( 8.0%)|/ 148~ | 599
Miscellaneous~ ~ | 301 |1219|(13.4%)|/ 91~ | 308
Totals ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |2264 |9167|(100.%)|/ 1897~ |7680

Net Growth (million ft3/ year) of Growing Stock on US Timberlands (94P2)
Year - - | ~1991| ~1986| ~1976| ~1962| ~1952
Softwoods|11,974|12,520|12,501| 9,610| 7,735
Hardwoods| 9,652| 9,562| 9,425| 7,095| 6,175
Totals ~ |21,626|22,083|21,926|16,705|13,910
Totals*~ | ~ 612| ~ 625| ~ 621| ~ 473| ~ 394
* Million m3/ year

Removals of Growing Stock from US Timberlands (Million ft3/ year) (94P2)
Year - - -| 1991 | 1986 | 1976
Softwoods |10,956|10,943| 9,999
Hardwoods | 5,352| 5,012| 4,195
Totals~ ~ |16,308|15,956|14,194
Totals* ~ | ~ 462| ~ 452| ~ 402
* million m3/ year

Mortality (million ft3/ year) of Growing Stock on US Timberlands (94P2)
Year - - - - - - -| 1991| 1986| 1976| 1962| 1952
Softwoods ~ ~ ~ ~ |2,991|2,546|2,466|2,769|2,662
Hardwoods ~ ~ ~ ~ |2,490|1,860|1,627|1,566|1,243
Totals~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |5,481|4,406|4,093|4,334|3,905
Totals(million m3)| ~155| ~125| ~116| ~123| ~111

Net Annual growth, Removals and Mortality of Growing Stock on US Timberlands (1991) (94P2)
("Removals" include harvesting and cultural operations.)
Softwoods| ~ ~ |Mort-~ |Hardwoods| ~ ~ |Mort-
Growth|Removals| ality |Growth|Removals| ality.
11,974| 10,956 | 2,991 |9,652 |5,352 ~ |2,489 @
~ ~339| ~ ~310 | ~ ~85 | ~273 | ~152 ~ | ~ 70 #
@ Million ft3/ year, # Million m3/ year

Volume of Roundwood Products Harvested in the US (94P2)
("roundwood"= saw-logs+ pulpwood+ veneer logs+ fuelwood+ other prod.)
From Growing Stock| From Other Sources
~Total |Softwood|Hardwood|Total|Softwood|Hardwood
~14,041| 9,848~ | 4,193~ |3,848| 1,333~ | 2,516 #
~ ~ 398| ~ 279~ | ~ 119~ | ~109| ~ ~38~ | ~ ~71 *
# million ft3/ year; * million m3/ year

Part [D4] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Western ~

Wallowa County Oregon (the quaking aspen capital of Oregon) has lost 95% if its aspens during the past 150 years, and could be gone within 10 years without efforts to prevent destructive cattle and elk grazing and encroachment by other trees. (Aspen are an early successional species.) (Cattle like aspen leaves, and elk eat both the leaves and the bark of aspens.) Aspen are declining throughout the US West from Arizona to Alberta Canada, down 60% from historic numbers. Drought, fungus, caterpillars, and tree age could explain the die-off in Colorado. Aggressive prevention of wildfires has enabled dense conifer stands to crowd out aspens. (Aspen are an early successional species.) Vast groves of aspen in Wyoming, Colorado and Utah sometimes cover hundreds of thousands of acres (Richard Cockle, "Anxiety rises for aspen groves," The Oregonian, 10/15/06.).

Timber Inventory in the Southwest Region (3) of the US Forest Service (thousands of acres) (92S3)
Area/ ~ ~ | Total| ~ ~ Old Growth |
Forest~ ~ | Area | Total|Available|Protected
NEW MEXICO

Carson~ ~ | 1500 | ~250 | ~200 + | ~50
Cibola~ ~ | 1650 | ~171 | ~ 38 + | 133
Gila~ ~ ~ | 3325 | ~619 | ~166 + | 453
Lincoln ~ | 1100 | ~371 | ~324 + | ~47
Santa Fe~ | 1600 | ~595 | ~415 + | 180
ARIZONA
Apache- ~ | 1905 | ~370 | ~295 + | ~75
-Sitgr. ~ |
Coconino~ | 1801 | ~355 | ~239 + | 116
Coronado~ | 1800 | ~114 | ~ ~7 + | 107
Kaibab~ ~ | 1600 | ~ 63 | ~ 41 + | ~22
Prescot ~ | 1300 | ~133 | ~ 65 + | ~68
Tonto ~ ~ | 2875 | ~321 | ~186 + | 135
Totals~ ~ |20456 | 3362 | 1976 + |1386

Sub Part [D4a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Western - California ~

Pacific Lumber owns 765 km2 (and 75% of California's and the World's native coastal redwoods outside national parks). The company plans to cut these trees over 20 years (88B2).

Virgin old-growth redwoods today occupy 445 km2. 70% is protected by parks, and the lion's share of that which is not owned by Pacific Lumber (88A1).

Sub Part [D4b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Western - Hawaii ~
About 25% of the 7 main Hawaiian Islands area is forested. Nearly all of these forests are under some type of regulated management - usually for control of water yield. 3440 km2 are state-owned; 1417 km2 are private, 804 km2 are national parks (80U1).

Sub Part [D4c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Western - Oregon ~
Commercial forestland = 25.7 million acres (104,000 km2) (467 billion bf. of harvestable timber). 62% of harvestable timber is managed by public agencies. 20,000 km2 of forest are devoted to recreation and water production. Total forest land = 124,000 km2 (50% of the land in Oregon) is divided between the Douglas fir region west of the Cascade range (60,700 km2) and the pine region to the east (43,300 km2) (77A1).

In Oregon, 2-8% of the original late-seral ponderosa pine forests still exist (97B3).

By far the most valuable remaining timber in the federal system lies on the west side of the Cascade Mountain range in the Pacific Northwest. Less valuable resources lie in the more arid regions east of the Cascades, in the Rockies, and the desert areas of the Southwest. Southeastern forests are highly productive, but the timber sells at lower prices because all the oldest trees have been cut, leaving less valuable second- and third-growth forests (94D4).

Western Oregon and Washington have 100,000 km2 of commercial forestlands (Ref. 31 of (90H5)). 70,000 were probably in old-growth condition in 1890. Currently 20,000 km2 of old growth remains (Ref. 31 of (90H5)).

Part [D5] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Eastern ~

Maine has 900 million dry tons of biomass on timberland, and 928 million dry tons of biomass on all forestlands. About 45% of the biomass was in growing stock, 55% was in branches, foliage, and stumps (incl. roots??) of growing stock trees; seedlings and saplings; and shrubs (98W1).

American Forests found tree cover in southeast portion of Chesapeake Bay watershed (11.4 million acres) declined from 51% to 39% during 1973 to 1979. (Environmental News Network, 3/17/99).

Sub Part [D5a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Eastern - Ohio ~
Once 90% forested; Ohio was 15% forested (56S3).

Part [D6] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Long-Leafed Pine ~

Of the estimated original 243,000 km2 of long-leafed pine in the US, fewer than 16,000 km2 remain. In North Carolina there were 2700 km2 in 1955, and 1030 km2 in 1990 (95U1).

Part [D7] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Pinyon-Juniper ~

Over 194,000 km2 in the SW US are the original habitat for pinyon-juniper woodlands (Ref. 9 of (84R1)). The first major depletion of these woodlands came with the discovery of silver in NV in 1859. By 1880, 3040 km2 of pinyon-juniper cover had gone from the Great Basin (Ref. 10 of (84R1)). In the 1950s, the USFS and the BLM began "chaining" pinyon-junipers. During 1950-72, over 13,000 km2 of pinyon-juniper lands were cleared by chaining to create grazing lands (Ref. 11 of (84R1)).

Pinyon pine and juniper cover 304,000 km2 of the semi-arid and western US. Since the 1800s they have taken over about 81,000 km2 of grass/ shrub lands (91J1). Comments: Over-grazing promotes the spread of pinyon-juniper because cattle don't eat pinyon-juniper, and pinyon juniper competes with grass. (la)

Part [D8] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Rocky Mountains ~

Ref. (74A1) gives a map of the distribution of spruce, fir and lodge-pole pine in the central- and southern Rocky Mountains. It also gives a table of the area and volume of sawtimber on commercial forest in the central- and southern Rocky Mountains by species and by state.

In Montana's Kootenai National Forest, 10% of its original late-seral forests remain (97B3).

Part [D9] ~ Forest Inventory ~ US - Southeast

Pine plantation cover in the southeastern US grew by 80,000 km2 between 1952 and 1985, while natural pine forest cover declined by 120,000 km2 (99A2). (la)

A number of studies cited in Ref. (99N1) found that ownership issues, environmental factors, and demographic factors may reduce the actual deciduous hardwood inventory available for harvest in the US South by 30-50%, and the coniferous inventory by 10-15%. They estimate the reduction in economic wood supply to be even greater (99N1).

Colberg (1998) (in 99N1) used a timber-supply forecasting system similar to the ATLAS model used by the USFS in the Haynes et al (1995) forecasts, but with supply/demand assumptions based on observed data rather than theoretical abstractions, and computed softwood inventories in the US South declining as much as 40% by 2015 (99N1).

One study of the US South found that as much as 40% of the deciduous inventories are not available for industrial use. Another study estimates the deciduous area reduction at 30-50% (slopes too steep, wetland sites, in stream, or roadside reserves) (99N1).

WRI (1998) (in 99N1) estimates that pine plantations in the US South will increase from 129,000 km2 in 1999 to 170,000 km2 in 2030.

Comparison of Wood Supply Estimates for the Southern US (99N1) (million m3/ year)
Year - - - | 2000| 2010~ |2020
Coniferous
Economic * |177.5| 180.9 |200.3 (353.6 for all of US)
Probable **|161.4|118-152|160.0
Deciduous
Economic * |107.3| 122.6 |128.7 (279.8 for all of US)
Probable *#| 75.0| 75-88 | 90.0
* "Economic" estimate is by Hayes et al (1995) for the US Forest Service which apparently does not consider various constraints used by "Probable" estimates and are considered to be non-sustainable by authors of "probable" estimates. Hayes estimates for the northeastern US, the north-central US and the western US are given in Table 3 of Ref. (99N1).
*# "Probable" estimates are by Colberg (1997,1998), Aspey and Reed (1995), Reed (1998) and Cubbage et al (1996)

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SECTION (3-E) ~ Forest Inventory of South- and Central America ~ [E1] Latin America, [E2]~ Central America, [E3] Tropical Andes Mountains, [E4] Amazon Basin, [E5] Brazil, [E6] South America

Part [E1] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Latin America ~

Original forests of Latin America covered 6.93 million km2. Estimated cover in 2000: 3.66 million km2 (88W2). (la)

In Latin America, forest-plantation area has increased 50% in the past 12 years - to 75,000 km2 (98M1). (la)

Closed forest cover: 7.25 million km2 (over 33% of the land area of Latin America). Open woodlands of Latin America cover another 4 million km2 (81B1). (la)

Nearly all of Latin America's softwoods are in Central America (81B1).

Some 75% of Latin America's tropical moist forest is in the Amazon Basin (81B1).

Part [E2] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America ~

Central America As a Whole - See below, [E2a] Costa Rica, [E2b] Haiti, [E2c] Jamaica, [E2d] Mexico, [E2e] Panama, [E2f]~ Puerto Rico, [E2g] Honduras,

Lowland- and Lower Montane Tropical Rainforest of Central America un-degraded in mid-1982 (km2) and loss rate (km2/ year) (83N1) (la)
Nation - |Inventory|Loss Rate
Nicaragua | 28,000 |1000
Guatemala | 26,300 | 600
Panama~ ~ | 22,000 | 500
Honduras~ | 20,000 | 700
Costa Rica| 16,000 | 600
Belize~ ~ | ~9,800 | ~32
Mexico~ ~ | ~8,000 | 600
ElSalvador| ~ ~ ~0 | ~ 0
Totals~ ~ |130,100 |4032
Comments: Obsolete data -- much tropical rainforest has been cleared for grazing since that time. Historical value only.

A map of 1982 tropical rainforest and deforestation since 1940 in Central America is in Ref. (83N1).

Forest cover in Central America: 60% in 1960; 40% in 1980 (88P1). Comments: Cover in 2000 is far smaller due to clearing for grazing. (la)

Forest-Land-Grazing-Land Trade-offs in Central America (84P1) (km2) (la)
Country - |- Grazing Land - | Forestland
- - - - - | 1961| 1978 |ch. | 1961 | 1978 |change
Costa Rica| 9690| 17640|+82%| 28480| 19300| -32%
ElSalvador| 6060| ~6900|+14 | ~2300| ~ ~ 0|-100
Guatemala |10390| 19760|+90 | 84000| 44000| -48
Honduras~ |20060| ~2370|+18 | 71000| 39000| -45
Nicaragua |17100| 28200|+65 | 64320| 44000| -32
Panama~ ~ | 8990| 14300|+59 | 41000| 32000| -22
Totals~ ~ |72290|110500|+53%|291100|178300| -39%
Comments: Clearly only about 40,000 km2 of the 110,000 km2 loss in forest cover is explained by growth in grazing lands. Most of the remainder is probably explained by growth in croplands, particularly shifting cultivation, with urbanization explaining most of the remainder.

Central America forest- and pasture areas (plotted in Ref. (91D1)) (1000 km2) (la)
Year - |1965|1970|1975|1980|1985|1988
Forest | 280| 240| 220| 200| 185| 180
Pasture| ~90| 110| 120| 125| 135| 140
Totals | 370| 350| 340| 325| 320| 320

Sub Part [E2a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Costa Rica ~
In 1984, forests covered 18% of Costa Rica (90W1). Forested area of Costa Rica shrank from 20% to 2% of total land area over the past two decades (86M1). D.H. Janzea (Science, 1/2/87) points out that this is true of dry forest only. (Costa Rica has 20% of its land in explicitly conserved national parks and preserves.) Comments: Squatters, firewood gatherers and timber thieves are deforesting these "parks" and "preserves".

Sub Part [E2b] ~ Forest Inventory - Central America ~ Haiti ~
In 1923, Haiti's forest-cover was 63% (88M2). (la)

Around 1985, 2% of Haiti was forested (88M2). (la)

Haiti was less than 9% wooded in the early 1970s. By the mid-1970s Haiti's mountains were completely ravaged of forests (76E1).

In the late 1950s, 80% of Haiti was forested. Now about 9% is forested, and 50% of that is scrub (77J1).

1.5% of Haiti's natural forests remain intact (11/4/99 Washington Post).

Sub Part [E2c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Jamaica ~
A 1980 land-cover/ use assessment revealed 46.22% forest cover. The decrease in cover during 1980-86 was 3.3%/ year. The assessment of cover (5%) by Hedges and Woods, (Nature, 364 (1993)) is in error. Forests generally lie on land too steep, too rainy, or on limestone too lacking in soil to be worth clearing (93G1).

Sub Part [E2d] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Mexico
Satellite images reveal that Mexico lost almost 3 million acres/ year (12,000 km2/ year) of forest and jungle between 1993-2000 - nearly twice what officials had previously estimated. At this rate, the world's second most biologically diverse forest, the Lacandon rain forest, could disappear within 10-30 years (Christian Science Monitor, 1/14/02).

Mexico will not have any tropical jungles by 2059. (Associated Press/ ABC News.com, 12/5/01).

1.5 million acres are deforested annually in Mexico ("Mexico's Population Growth - the Driving Force of Emigration", Glen Kaye, 1/22/03).

Mexico lost 60,000 km2 of forest in the 1990s (02U1).

Maps of the forested area of the Los Tuxtlas region of Veracruz in 1967, 1976 and 1986 are in Ref. (94S2).

Mexico has declared 810 km2 of the last tropical rainforest in North America (Lacandon) a national reserve (92B1). (It borders Guatemala, and had been shrinking at 3.5%/ year.) In 1970, Mexico's Lacandon rainforest contained 12,200 km2. In 1988 it contained about half that (88R1).

Early explorers estimated that 40-50% of Mexico supported marketable timber. By 1950 this cover had been reduced to 10% (76E1).

Before Cortez, southern Mexico had 223,000 km2 of lowland jungle and mountain forest. In the mid-1980s, 24,000 km2 remain (88R1). (la)

The Sierra Madre contains 2/3 of Mexico's standing timber. Currently, all but 1200 km2 (2%) of the original old-growth forest is gone (95S1).

Sub Part [E2e] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Panama
A century ago, Panama was 97% rainforest-covered. By 2000 under 10% of Panama will be forested (92R1).

Sub Part [E2f] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Puerto Rico (8897 km2) ~
Originally Puerto Rico (8897 km2 ) was 100% forested, 3700 km2 of Puerto Rico's forest remain (80U1). 1/3 of the original forest was rainforest (80U1). (la)

Sub Part [E2g] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Central America - Honduras ~
Honduras lost 20% of its forest cover during 1965-90. During 1990-95 Honduras lost 2.3% of its forest annually (vs. 2%/ year for Guatemala and 2.6%/ year for Nicaragua) (98Y1).

Honduras has lost 50% of its original forest cover (98Y1).

Part [E3] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Tropical Andes Mountains ~

Original forest area of the tropical Andes Mountains was 101,000 km2. Around 1990 the forest area = 34,800 km2 (91W1). (la)

Part [E4] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Amazon Basin ~

Some 5.18 million km2 is considered the Amazon. It has 30% of the world's rainforest (89U1). The largest continuous forest in the world occupies 84% of the basin of the Amazon River. This basin is among the most sparsely populated regions on earth (76E1). Comments: In the early 2000s, much forestland in the Amazon Basin is being cleared for soybean agriculture.

Part [E5] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Brazil ~

Brazil, with 50,000 km2 of forest plantations, gets 60% of its industrial wood from plantations (Ashley T. Mattoon, "Paper Forests," World Watch, March/ April 1998, p. 20).

In 2000, more than 12,260 km2 of rainforest were cut in the Amazon, a 20% increase over 1999 (01S1).

During the 1990s, Brazil lost 230,000 km2 of forest (02U1).

The Brazilian Amazon contains 1/3 of the Earth's remaining tropical forests (89S1). (la)

Brazil alone contains 30% of the world's tropical forests (90W1).

The Amazon forest covers 3.37 million km2 in Brazil (90W1).

In 1910, 60% of Sao Paulo (250,000 km2) was covered with virgin forest. In 1950, 20% was forested (77A2).

Parana (a Brazilian state) had a 1953 forest area of 65,000 km2 (77A2).

Pre-deforestation Water, Forest and Cerrado (tropical savanna) Land Cover for the Brazilian Amazon by state (93S1) (km2)
State - - -| Water| ~Forest|Cerrado| Total
Acre ~ ~ ~ | ~ 393| 152,394| ~ ~ ~0| 152,787
Amapa~ ~ ~ | 1,188| 137,444| ~ ~978| 139,610
Amazonas ~ |29,842|1531,122| 14,379|1575,343
Maranhao ~ | 1,344| 145,766|114,675| 261,785
Mato Grosso| 4,212| 527,570|368,658| 900,440
Para ~ ~ ~ |49,522|1183,571| 28,637|1261,730
Rondonia ~ | 1,462| 212,214| 24,604| 238,280
Roraima~ ~ | 1,817| 172,425| 51,464| 225,706
Tocantins~ | 2,914| ~30,325|244,005| 277,244
Totals - - |92,694|4092,831|847,400|5032,925

Atlantic tropical forests of Brazil once covered 1 million km2. Around 1990 it covered 20,000 km2 (91W1). (la)

In 1500, subtropical forests of Southeastern Brazilian coastal provinces covered 500,000 km2 - 6% of Brazil's land (Ref. 5 of (84R1)). By the early 20th century, only a few patches of the primary forest remained (Ref. 6 of (84R1)). 95,000 km2 of forest were cleared in the 1690-1790 gold rush. After 1900, some small forest reserves were established for biological research stations (Ref. 8 of (84R1)).

Part [E6] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - [E6a] Chile, [E6b] Colombia, [E6c] Surinam, [E6d] Uruguay, [E6e] Venezuela,~

South America suffered the largest net loss of forest area during 2000-2005 - about 4.3 million hectares (43,000 km2) per year (05F1).

South America lost 370,000 km2 of forest during the 1990s (02U1).

Some 36% of South America's original moist forest exists today (76H1) (FAO data). Comments: Obsolete Data for historical purposed only.

Sub Part [E6a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - Chile ~
Chile's native forests include one of the world's last two extensive temperate rainforests (97H2).

In the Bio-Bio region (200 miles south of Santiago) and Maule region of south-central Chile, 28% of the original old-growth forest remains (89R1). In the Bio-Bio region, 31% of the coastal native forests were converted to pine plantations during 1978-87 (89R1).

The Valdivian Forest is one of the last two extensive temperate rainforests on Earth (90K2). After a century of logging, under 2600 km2 of Alerc forest remains (in the rugged, rainy coastal mountains south of Puerco Montt). Today 18% of the original Alerc forest survives. Most Alerc habitat is in Chile; a small portion is in Argentina (90K2).

Monterey pine now covers 13,000 km2 of Chile's plantation land (98M1).

Sub Part [E6b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - Colombia ~
Colombia's forests account for 49%, or 530,364 km2 of Colombia's total land mass (Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: 1994) (93W5). (la)

One-third of Colombia's original forestlands have been felled (91R2).

Sub Part [E6c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - Surinam (former Dutch colony in N.E. South America) ~
About 90% of Surinam's virgin forests remain (95M1). At least 5 major corporations from Malaysia, Indonesia and China may soon be granted timber contracts (95A1).

Surinam has about 90% of its territory in tropical rain forest (95A1).

Sub Part [E6d] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - Uruguay ~
Natural forest occupy 2.9% of Uruguay's 186,926 km2 (80W4)

Plantations of exotic species occupy 20% of Uruguay's forested land (80W4). (Natural forests occupy 2.9% of Uruguay's 186,926 km2 (80W4)). (la)

Sub Part [E6e] ~ Forest Inventory ~ South America - Venezuela ~
About 60% of original forest cover north of the Orinoco River has been lost. Remaining forests cover now 20% of the surface north of the Orinoco, fractioned into severely degraded lots (95C1).

Venezuela's state of Bolivar is 240,000 km2 in size. It is covered by natural tropical forests over 70% of its surface. Since 1987, nearly 30,000 km2 of natural and pristine forests have been leased to timber concessionaires there. The new national development plan (1996-99) by the Bureau for Coordination and Planning of the Presidency [CORDIPLAN], proposes to expand timber concessions to nearly 120,000 km2 (95C1).

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SECTION (3-F) ~ Forest Inventory of Europe, Australia and Oceania ~ [F1] Europe in General, [F2] Southern Europe, [F3]~ Northern Europe, [F4] Australia, [F5] Oceania, [F6] New Zealand,

Part [F1] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Europe in General ~

Forest areas in Europe continued to expand during 2000-2005, but at slower rates than in the 1990s (05F1).

Many European countries made no distinction between planted- and natural forests in their inventories. Additionally, because trees have been planted over long periods of time in these areas, frequently have long rotation periods (up to 100 years) and commonly use naturally occurring species, the distinction between natural and planted stands is not readily discernible (01F1).

Over 25% of Central and Western Europe was forest covered around 1974 (76E1).

Ref. (81B1) tabulates the distribution of European forest resources among sub-regions as of the early 1970s (exploitable forest area, growing stock, net annual increment, felling rate, etc.).

Growing Stock (million m3) in Deciduous and Coniferous Forests of Europe (87N1)
Country - - |Decid.|Conif.| Country~ ~ |Decid.|Conif.
Austria ~ ~ | ~124 | ~679 | Netherlands| ~ ~8 | ~21
Bulgaria~ ~ | ~197 | ~101 | Poland ~ ~ | ~265 | 879
Czechoslovakia 237 | ~686 | Spain~ ~ ~ | ~173 | 280
Denmark ~ ~ | ~??? | ~ 29 | Switzerland| ~102 | 210
France~ ~ ~ | ~945 | ~605 | UK ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 92 | 111
W. Germany~ | ~435 | 1065 | Finland~ ~ | ~ ?? |1290
Hungary ~ ~ | ~224 | ~ 29 | Norway ~ ~ | ~ ?? | 459
Italy ~ ~ ~ | ~356 | ~201 | Sweden ~ ~ | ~ ?? |1886

Luxembourg~ | ~ 11 | ~ 13 | Totals ~ ~ | 3169 |8562

European Growing stock: 20 billion m3 over bark in 1971; 25 billion m3 over bark in 1990 (92K1).

Non-exploitable closed forest in Europe occupies about 140,000 km2 (7% of the total closed forest and other wooded land) (92K1). (la)

Afforestation of surplus fields and pastures, and the drainage of peatlands, especially in the Nordic countries, increased the area of exploitable closed forest in Europe by 2.5% during 1970-80 (92K1).

Growing stock increased in Europe by 12.3% during 1971-80 (92K1).

The forest timber growth rate in Sweden, Finland and France increased by about 30% between the early 1970s and the late 1980s (92K1).

Part [F2] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Europe

Sub Part [F2a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Europe - Austria ~
Growing stock in Austria in 1980 was 0.8 billion m3 (92K1).

Sub Part [F2b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Europe - Spain ~
Mountains of southeastern Spain were once described as "covered with thick woods and gigantic trees". The Spanish slopes of the Pyrenees were likewise "covered with forests containing numerous kinds of trees and evergreens" (56D1).

Spain has more than 50,000 km2 of pulp plantation, much of it growing on former farmland (98M1).

Sub Part [F2c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Southern Europe - Yugoslavia ~
During the wars with the Turks, other Balkan countries, WWI and WWII, Yugoslavia's forests were badly over-cut. Today only vestiges of Yugoslavia's original forests remain. In recent years, the Serbian areas of conifers and fast-growing poplar plantations are growing by 10%/ year (73N2). The low forests are improving because of the elimination of goat grazing on public lands. High forests are also improving due to human migration to urban areas from high altitude farms (73N2).

Part [F3] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe ~ [F3a] Finland, [F3b] France, [F3c] Germany, [F3d] Great Britain, [F3e] Scotland, [F3f]~Sweden, [F3g]~Switzerland,

Sub Part [F3a] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Finland ~
Nearly 2/3 of Finland is forest-covered (186,000 km2) (Croplands cover 10% of Finland.). In addition, 36,000 km2 are in stunted forest and 40,000 km2 are nearly treeless wastelands (mainly peat-covered). 30% of Finland's peatlands have been drained at 2000-3000 km2/ year during the past decade. This is expected to increase forest area to 223,000 km2 by 2000 (75N1).

Growing stock in Finland was 1.7 billion m3 in 1980 (92K1).

Increase in stem-wood volume in Finland in 1980 was 70 million m3/ year (92K1).

Sub Part [F3b] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - France
Forest cover in France in 1789 = 14%; forest cover in 1988 = 25% (Ref.11 of (88P1)).

Growing stock in France was 1.7 billion m3 in 1980 (92K1).

Increase in stem-wood volume in France in 1980 = 47 million m3/ year (92K1).

Sub Part [F3c] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Germany ~
West Germany's growing stock in 1980 was 2.1 billion m3 (92K1).

Sub Part [F3d] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Great Britain ~
In 1950 Great Britain had 6.4% of its land in forests and woodlands - less than any European country except Ireland (73N1).

Sub Part [F3e] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Scotland ~
Scotland's original Caledonia Forest once covered 15,000 km2 and grew continuously since the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago. Today Caledonia Forest consists of 38 scattered remnants totaling 120 km2 (93W3). It was cut in the 17th and 18th centuries for timber, and in the 19th century for sheep grazing (93W3). (la)

Nearly all the forest covering 15% of Scotland are plantations of non-native conifers (98A2). (la)

Sub Part [F3f] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Sweden ~
From the mid-1920s to 1970, the total amount of timber in Swedish forests increased by almost 40% (Ref. 10 of (77B1)).

Growing stock in Sweden in 1980 was 2.5 billion m3 (92K1).

Increase in stem-wood volume in Sweden in 1980 was 90 million m3/ year (92K1).

Sub-Part [F3g] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Northern Europe - Switzerland ~

Growing stock in 1980 in Switzerland was 0.35 billion m3 (92K1).

Part [F4] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Australia ~

Australia's rainforest area: 23,000 km2, 5.6% of total native forest estate (95A4). (la)

The Resource Assessment Commission estimated that forest and woodlands once covered 520,000 km2 or two-thirds of New South Wales. Of these 520,000 km2, 210,000 remain. Most of this clearance occurred between 1893-21 when 257,000 km2 were cleared. The most recent rate of deforestation is 1500 km2/ year (96U1). (la)

The State of Queensland was covered by 355,440 km2 of native vegetation when it was settled by Europeans (96U1). As of 1984, native vegetation covered 170-200,000 km2 (96U1) (la). 5000 and 4500 additional km2 were cleared in 1987-88 and 1989-90 respectively (96U1).

Rainforests are mainly found in Northern Queensland (tropical), Western Tasmania (temperate), and in pockets along the Great Dividing Range (95A4).
380,000 km2 of closed forest, 20% is coniferous (81B1).

Over 50% of (Australia's) rainforests are in Queensland (88D1).

Some 25% of Queensland's rainforest is protected in national parks and preserves (88D1). Comments: This data is also in the section on Global inventory of protected forests.)

In the past 200 years, 75% of Australia's original rainforest has been cleared (88D1).

Tropical rainforests cover 12,000 km2 along Australia's NE coast (Sept. 1988 Sierra Magazine, p. 38). (la)

Part [F5] ~ Forest Inventory ~ Oceania ~

Sub Part [F5a] ~ Forest Inventory - Oceania ~ Guam ~
Guam was mostly forested when discovered in 1521. During and shortly after WWII, the last commercial timber was cut and most of it shipped to Japan. Guam has 544 km2. Around 1970, 282 km2 has a cover of trees or brush, including 41 km2 of coconut groves no longer tended (73H1).
202 km2 of Guam's 544 km2 is open grassland (73H1). (la)
Some open land in southern Guam is barren and actively eroding (73H1).

Part [F6] ~ Forest Inventory ~ New Zealand ~

Of New Zealand's 62,000 km2 of closed forest; 70% is coniferous (81B1). Ref. (56C1) gives a map of the original (pre-European) vegetation cover of South Island, New Zealand, including rainforest, scrub, brush, swamps, bogs, tussock grassland and alpine.

Practically all of New Zealand's North Island and the northern, western, and southern parts of South Island were covered originally with forests up to an elevation of 5000 feet (68G1).
Originally, forest covered 68% of New Zealand (75S3). (la)
Around 1970 about 14% of New Zealand was forest-covered, mostly in scenic reserves, national parks, and crown land (75S3).

New Zealand's 16,000 km2 of plantation forest (primarily Monterey pine) are expanding by 700 km2/ year (98A2). (la)

Tasmania was originally covered by 48,780 km2 of forest vegetation. Forest area has since declined to 31,094 km2 of native vegetation.

Change in vegetation since Tasmania's settlement (Areas are in km2) (96U1) (la)
Vegetation Type - |Pre-European|Present| Decrease
Native Vegetation~ ~ ~ | 48,780|31,094 |17,686 km2
Rainforest ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 10,000| 7,543 | 2,457
Wet Eucalypt Forest~ ~ | 12,728|10,182 | 2,456
Dry Eucalypt Forest~ ~ | 28,533|14,399 |14,134
Blackwood Swamp Forest | ~ ~170| ~ ~10 | ~ 160
Grassland~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~594| ~N.D. | ~N.D.
Coastal Heathland~ ~ ~ | ~4,258| 2,258 | 2,000
Alpine ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~1,150| 1,135 | ~ ~15
Salt marsh ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~ 40| ~ ~33 | ~ ~ 7
N.D. means No Data

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