Edition 6, July, 2007

NOTE 1: Section (4-A) of this Chapter 4 is in another file (df4.html)
NOTE 2: The notation (SU2) means the information is also in the author's paper on the sustainability of the global productivity of food and fiber.

(4-A) - Global Overview -

(4-A-a) ~ General ~ [Aa1] Cumulative Deforestation, [Aa2] Deforestation in the 1970s and before, [Aa3] Deforestation in the 1980s, [Aa4]~Deforestation in the 1990s, [Aa5] Montane Watersheds, [Aa6] Temperate Rainforests, [Aa7] Mangrove Forests, [Ac8]~Plantations,
(4-A-b) ~ Shifting Cultivation ~
[Ab1] Global, [Ab2] Africa, [Ab3] Asia, [Ab4] Asian Sub-Continent, [Ab6] Latin America (+Brazil), [Ab7] Less-Developed Countries, [Ab8]~Southeast Asia,
(4-A-c) ~ Conversion to Grazing Lands, Croplands and Aquaculture - [Ac1] Global, [Ac2] Africa (Morocco), [Ac3] South America, [Ac4]~Central America, [Ac5] Southeast Asia, [Ac6] Latin America, [Ac7] Oceania, [Ac8] Scotland, [Ac9] US,
(4-A-d) ~ Firewood- and Charcoal Production ~ [Ad1] Global, [Ad2] Tropical Nations, [Ad3] Africa, [Ad4]~Asian Sub-continent, [Ad5]~South America, [Ad6]~ Far East, [Ad7]~ US,
(4-A-e) ~ Urbanization ~ [Ae1] Global, [Ae2] Africa, [Ae3] Asia, [Ae4] Latin America, [Ae5]~North America,
Table of Contents (of this File)
(4-B) ~
Asia ~ [B1] Brief Summary, [B2] Asian Sub-Continent, [B3] Southeast Asia, [B4] Soviet Union (former) ,
(4-C) ~ Africa ~ [C1] Brief Summary, [C2] Eastern Africa, [C3] Southern Africa, [C4] West Africa, [C5] Central Africa,
(4-D) ~ North America ~ [D1] Alaska, [D2] California, [D3] Canada, [D4] Long-leafed Pine, [D5] Midwestern US, [D6]~Pinion Juniper, [D7]~Pacific Northwest US, [D8] Riparian Habitats -Western US, [D9] US, [D10] Northeastern US, [D11]~Southern US,
(4-E) ~ South- and Central America ~ [E1] Summary Table, [E2] Amazon Basin, [E3] Northern South America, [E4]~Andean Mountain Region, [E5] Brazil, [E6] Central America, [E7] Caribbean, [E8] Mexico, [E9] Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, ~
(4-F) ~ Europe, Australia and Oceania ~ [F1] Australia, [F2] Europe, [F3]~Oceania,

SECTION (4-B) ~ Forest Degradation Data for Asia ~ [B1] Brief Summary, [B2] Asian Sub-Continent, [B3] Southeast Asia, [B4]~Soviet Union,

Part [B1] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Brief Summary by Nation ~

Afghanistan - Forest cover reduced to under0.1% of country (75E1)
Asia - (FAO est.) Shifting cultivators clear 85,000 km2/ year (76E1)
Asia - Deforestation: 44,000 km2/ year (0.9%/ year) (90W1)
Asia (S/SE) - Forests decrease: 250,000 km2 since 1973 (81B1)
Asia (S/SE) - Operable forest areas to drop 34% in 1980s (81B1)
Asia (S/SE) - Closed forests in 2000: under 1 million km2 (81B1)
Asia (SE) - Logging degrades 24,300 km2/ year (89T1)
Asia (SE) - Current rates of deforestation: 2%/ year (89M1)
Asia - Forest regeneration:deforestation = 1:2 (95M3)
Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tract) - 40% (8700 km2) being rapidly depleted (80R3)
Burma (lower) - Forest cover was 350-400,000 km2 in 1850; reduced to a few 1000s by WWI (84R1)
Burma (Myanmar) - Coastal Forests virtually eliminated (90R3).
Burma (Irrawaddy/Sittang Valleys) - Forests virtually eliminated (90R3).
Burma - Losing forest cover at over 3.3%/ year (over 8100 km2/ year) (90R3).
Burma - All within 50 miles of Thai border gone by 12/90 (90R3).
Burma - Deforestation= 6600 km2/ year (Satellite imagery) (90R1).
Burma - Deforestation= 600 km2/ year (FAO 1980s estimate) (90R1).
Burma - Closed forest loss (1981-85): 1050 km2/ year (FAO) (90W1).
Burma - Closed forest loss (1975-81): 6770 km2/ year (2.1%) (90W1).
China (Yunnan Prov.) - Forest cover: 50% (1950); 25% (1977) (94W1).
China - 2/3 of timber districts to deplete in 10 years (86U3).
China - 70% of districts to have no mature timber by 2000 (95R2).
China - 25 of 131 timber districts have exhausted supply (86U3).
China - Forest cover: 8.6% (1949); 12.7% (1980) (82B1).
China - Forest cover: 12.7% (1974); 12.0% (1981) (86U3).
China - 0.9% of land stripped of forest cover every 5 years (86U3).
China - Forest cover declined by 50,000 km2 during 1979-83 (88P1).
China - 21,900 km2 of forests destroyed in past 5 years (93U4).
China - Cutting exceeds regrowth by 100 million m3/ year (91P1).
China - Timber production area shrank 30,000 km2 since 1980 (91P1).
China - All remaining production forests of harvestable age to be gone within a decade (91P1).
India - Forest cover = 16.9% (early 70s); 14.1% (early 80s) (88B1).
India - (Landsat) Ave. forest loss: 13,000 km2/ year (88B1).
India - Ave. forest loss: 15,000 km2/ year (91P1).
India - Of 750,000 km2 of forest, 300,000 lack tree cover (89P3).
India - Of 750,000 km2 of forest, 100,000 have only shrubs (89P3).
India (Khaniaru area of Himachal Pradesh) - 60% of forest cover stripped by slate mines (95D1).
India - 50-75% of the middle Mtn. ranges in Nepal/India deforested in past 4 decades (89J1).
India - Forest cover within 100 km. of major cities dropped 15%.
in less than 1 decade (Delhi lost 60%) (88P1)
(See tables of data for 1972-5 and 1980-2 in Ref. (88P1)).
India - Forest loss = 13000 km2/ year (Satellite imagery) (88P3).
India - Forest loss = 1400 km2/ year (FAO estimate in 80s) (88P3).
India - Forest loss= 15000 km2/ year (satellite imagery) (90R1).
India - Forest loss = 1500 km2/ year (FAO estimate in 80s) (90R1).
India - Closed forest loss (1981-85) = 1470 km2/ year (FAO) (90W1).
India -Closed forest loss (1975-82) =15000 km2/ year (4.1%) (90W1).
India - lost 68,000 km2 of forests between 1972-83 (95K1).
India - Forest cover from 1983 onwards is nearly stable (95K1).
Indonesia (Tropical forest) - 6000 km2 have been cleared for soybeans (92A1).
Indonesia - 300,000 km2 of forest now degraded grasslands (81B1).
Indonesia - logging over 8100 km2/ year of rainforest (90H1).
Indonesia - Forest loss: 490,000 km2 though logging and conversions to agriculture (86W1).
Indonesia - Forest loss = 9000 km2/ year (Satellite imagery) (90R1).
Indonesia - Forest loss = 5600 km2/ year (FAO est., early 80s) (90R1).
Indonesia - Closed forest loss (1981-85): 6000 km2/ year (FAO) (90W1).
Indonesia - Closed forest loss (1979-84): 9000 km2/year (0.8%) (90W1).
Java (Kalamantan) (Indonesian Borneo) - Current trends indicate no forest in 13 years (84G1).
Java (Kalamantan) (Indonesian Borneo) - Logging rate = 8000 km2/ year. Shifting cultivators follow, cutting 2000 km2/ year (84G1).
Lebanon - Forest cover dropped from 25% to 7% in a decade (83R1).
Malaysia (Sarawak) - Logging 3250 km2/ year (91R1).
Malaysia (Sarawak) - Logging 4400 km2/ year (91U7).
Malaysia (Sarawak) - Logging at twice the sustainable rate (90R1).
Malaysia (Sarawak) - Forests will be logged out in 11 years (90N1).
Malaysia (Sabah) - Primary forest will be gone by 1988 (73A1).
Malaysis (Sabah) - Cutting cycle has been reduced from 100 to 40 years (73A1).
Malaysia (Sabah) - Logging occurs at twice the sustainable rate (90R1).
Malaysia (Sabah) - Logging occurs at 4x the sustainable rate (88P1).
Malaysia - Deforestation is as much as 8100 km2/ year (90N1)
Malaysia - Hardwoods to be gone by 1996 (87S1)
Nepal (Khumbu Valley) - was deforested over past 3 decades (84E1).
Nepal - 25% of forest crown cover lost during 1965-79 (87K1).
Nepal - Forest cover to be gone in 25 years (87K1).
Nepal - Forest cover to be gone by 2000 (78B1).
Nepal -34,000 km2 of forest being depleted at over3%/ year (80R3).
Nepal (Terai region) - Forests being cleared for farmland in 1974 at 50%/ decade (75E1).
Philippines - Shifting cultivators clear 2000 km2/ year (81B1).
Philippines - 14,000 km2 denuded by logging and shifting cultivation. (88P1).
Philippines - dipterocarps forest area:
160,000 km2 (1960); under10,000 km2 (1990) (90R1).
Phillipines (Palawan) - The original 20,000 km2 will be gone in 10 years (92M1).
Philippines - 95% of primary forest has been eliminated (92M1).
Philippines - 14% of forests have been lost in past 5 years (80R2).
Philippines - Area under concession to loggers exceeds forest area (90R1).
Philippines - under 20% of the rainforest of WWII remains (92R1).
Philippines - Deforestation = 1500 km2/ year (Satellite) (90R1).
Philippines - Deforestation = 600 km2/ year (FAO est.-1980s) (90R1).
Philippines - Closed forest loss (1981-85) = 920 km2/ year (FAO)(90W1).
Philippines - Closed forest loss (1981-88) =1430 km2/year (1.5%) (90W1).
Philippines - Logging could destroy rain forests within 20 years (97U3).
Russia - Hundai cutting 300,000 m3/ year (92S1).
Russia - Weyerhauser to log 10,000 km2 (92S1).
Russia - Softwood harvests exceed what is sustainable (84P1).
Russia - Hardwood harvests are 125% of sustainable (250 million m3/ year) (84P1).
Russia - Timber of Karelia to last 25 years (81B1).
Russia - Over 50% of Siberian forests have been logged.(92R5).
Sri Lanka - Forest cover = 44% (1956); 20% (1980) (80R3).
Sri Lanka - Forest cover = 100% (1900); 25% (1985) (86U2).
Sri Lanka - Mahareli River development: Forest cover to drop to 16-17% (10,000 km2) (80R3).
Siberia - Foreign timber companies (Japan and Korea) entering joint-ventures with govt. (92R5) (93B1)
Thailand(N) - Forest area decreased 3.6%/year over last 5 years (91R3).
Thailand (N) - Shifting cultivators clear 1000 km2/ year (84P1).
Thailand (N) - Cutting rate = 5-7%/ year in mountains (76E1).
Thailand (N.E.) - Forest cover dropped from 42% to less than 15% in past 30 years (91U2).
Thailand - Shifting cultivators clear 2500 km2/ year (81B1).
Thailand - Forest cover = 53% (1963); 39% (1971); under30%(1980) (80R3).
Thailand - Forest cover = 29%(1985); 19%(1988) (90W1).
Thailand - Forest cover = 67% (1950); under 20% (1988) (89W1).
Thailand - (only Nepal and Sri Lanka lose % coverage faster) (89W1).
Thailand - Forest cover = 70% (mid-40s); 15% (1991) (92R1)
Thailand - Lost 45% of forest during 1961-86 (89P2)
Thailand - Lost 25% of forest in the past decade (80R2)
Thailand - Area under concession to loggers exceeds forest (90R1).
Thailand - Deforestation = 3600 km2/ year (Satellite imagery) (90R1).
Thailand - Deforestation = 3200 km2/ year (FAO estimate in 1980s)(90R1).
Thailand - Forest resources being destroyed at 13%/ year (81B1).
Thailand - Closed forest loss (1981-85) = 3790 km2/ year(FAO) (90W1).
Thailand - Closed forest loss (1978-85) =3970 km2/ year (2.5%) (90W1).
Tibet - Forest cover = 50% (1950); under 8% (1990) (93D1).
USSR.(European) - Coniferous forests have been depleted (90F5).
USSR.(Primorskiy and Khabarovsk regions) - Cedar forests reduced by 8510 km2 (22%) in the past 20 years (90F5).
Viet Nam - Forest cover = 43% in 1943; under 23% in 1986 (IUCNNR).
Viet Nam - Forest cover: from 40% to 25% in past 25 years (World Bank).
Viet Nam - 22,300 km2 of forest destroyed in Viet Nam war (90K1).
Viet Nam - Closed forest loss (1981-85) = 650 km2/ year (FAO) (90W1).
Viet Nam - Closed forest loss (1976-81) = 1730 km2/ year (2%) (90W1).
Viet Nam - US military destroyed 49,000 km2 of forest (95H1).
Viet Nam - Remaining 20,000 km2 of natural forests are being reduced 1000-2000 km2/ year (95H1).

Part [B2] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Asian Sub-Continent ~

Sub-Part [B2a] ~ Forest Degradation - Asian Sub-Continent ~ India ~
After several decades of accelerated deforestation and chronic over-grazing, much of west- and central India is assuming the appearance of a lunar landscape (76E1). The productivity of an arid area covering over 20% of India is being seriously impaired (76E1).

Sub-Part [B2b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Asian Sub-Continent ~ Nepal ~
The World Bank Aun Dam project, will impact one of the last virgin rainforests in the Himalayas. Due to road building and current logging, local NGOs estimate that total deforestation will occur in 15 years or less (96G1).

Sub-Part [B2c] ~ Forest Degradation - Asian Sub-Continent ~ Pakistan ~
Since 1947, the 13,300-km2 strip of Kashmir forest under Pakistani control has diminished by two-thirds. In 1947, 42% of Azad Kashmir was forest; today it's 13% ("
Kashmir's Fabled Forests Vanish", Terra Daily/ Agence France-Presse, 4/13/03).

Part [B3] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southeast Asia ~

Sub-Part [B3a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southeast Asia ~ Indonesia ~

A UN report of February, 2007 found that all lowland forests on Indonesia's Borneo and Sumatra islands could be lost by 2022 at the current logging rate of 2.8 million ha./ year (28,000 km2/ year) (07W1).(SU2)

The Tessa Nilo forest on Sumatra (in Indonesia) is being decimated by both small-scale illegal logging and massive operations carried out by multinational corporations (ENN, AP 2/5/02).

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is warning that an Indonesian tropical forest that holds the "largest variety of lowland forest plants known to science" could be destroyed within four years unless unsustainable logging is stopped (ENN, AP 2/5/02).

According to the World Bank, the deforestation rate in Indonesia has gone from 2.47 to 4.2 million acres/ year (10,000 to 17,000 km2/ year) during the 1990s (01U2). Comments: This could refer to the timber harvest rate, not the rate of conversion of forestland to other uses.

According to the journal Science: If the current state of Indonesia's resource anarchy continues, the lowland forests of the Sundra Shelf, the richest forests on Earth, will be destroyed by 2005 on Sumatra, and by 2010 on Kalimantan (01S1).

Indonesia's forests have generated export earnings of $3.6 billion/ year over the last 3 years. Deforestation continues unchecked, even accelerated, despite proclamations of various Indonesian governments of a permanent forest estate, with 490,000 km2 in protected status, and another 630,000 km2 managed for sustainable production. World Bank satellite-imagery maps that show Indonesia has lost over 170,000 km2 of forests over the last 12 years - 25% of the total forest cover that existed in 1985. Lowland dry forests, the most valuable type for logging and biodiversity conservation, are disappearing fastest. Such forests are already "defunct as a viable resource" in Sulawesi and are likely to be gone in Sumatra by 2005 and in Kalimantan by 2010 (Thomas Walton, Derek Holmes, International Herald Tribune, 1/25/00).

Logging accounts directly for 40% of "deforestation" (defined by loss of ecosystem function) in Indonesia. Another 700-1000 km2 are lost through fires attributable to logging, so actually logging accounts for 50% of Indonesia's "deforestation" (97B2).

Sources of Indonesian Deforestation (km2/ year)
Source: World Bank (1990) (96M1)
Small-holder conversion |5000
Development projects~ ~ |2500
Logging damage~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 800
Fire loss ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 700
Total ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |9000

As much as 60% of Indonesia's 20,000 km2 of wood plantations is thought to have directly displaced natural forests. Indonesia plans to have 60,000 km2 of plantations by 2010 (98M1). (la)

Sub-Part [B3b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southeast - Malaysia ~
A series of World Bank land settlement loans financed deforestation of 1020 km2 of rain-forest in Malaysia in 1968-1973 (96G1).

Sub-Part [B3c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southeast Asia - Philippines ~
Development of export crops was determinant in the land extension that almost doubled the cultivated area between 1960-80, and reduced forest area almost by half (90C2), (96M1).

Part [B4] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Soviet Union (former) ~

Rate of logging in Russia: estimated at 40,000 km2/ year (95A2).

In 1994, Roslesprom - the state-controlled holding company responsible for government shareholdings in the forest sector - released its 10-year forestry development plan, which called for more than a doubling of 1994 logging rates within European Russia, jeopardizing some of the few remaining undisturbed forests within the region (95G2).

From 1700-1900, 700,000 km2 were deforested in European Russia; the forest area shrank from 19% to 10% (03I1).

Most remaining wooded areas in Russia's Ural region are heavily degraded. Only 25% of the original forest cover remains in the southern portion of the Urals (94W2).

Forests in Russia's Far East are at risk of complete destruction within 5 years because of illegal logging. The Group of Seven industrialized countries, as well as South Korea and China, import illegal timber resources from the region (World Wide Fund for Nature statement, 2/27/02). Comments: This statement is also in Sect. (6-E).

Rates of Wood Harvest (million tonnes of Carbon/ year) from Blandon, 1983 (87H1)
- - - - -| Temperate Forest |Boreal Forest
- - - - - |Year|West* | East | West*| East
Industrial|1932| 8.52 | 2.36 |30.20 | 8.35
Wood~ ~ ~ |1950|12.96 | 4.64 |45.85 |16.32
- ~ ~ ~ ~ |1960|15.84 | 5.72 |65.65 |23.65
- ~ ~ ~ ~ |1970|12.92 | 6.40 |64.35 |31.85
- ~ ~ ~ ~ |1980|10.56 | 6.56 |55.50 |34.45
Non-Indust|1932|22.14 | 3.44 |31.06 |10.30
(largely~ |1945|13.41 | 2.46 |18.80 | 7.34
fuelwood) |1950| 9.43 | 1.84 |13.24 | 5.49
- ~ ~ ~ ~ |1960| 3.72 | 0.77 | 5.21 | 2.30
- ~ ~ ~ ~ |1980| 2.97 | 0.69 | 4.15 | 2.07
* west of the Ural Mountains
Comments: Wood is about 45% carbon dry weight; contains typically 20% moisture, and has a density of about 0.46 tonnes/ m3 (softwood) (0.56 for hardwood).

Sub-Part [B4a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Soviet Union (former) -Siberia ~
Some 80% of Siberian timber is exported as raw logs (95A2).

Nearly 50% of the logged permafrost in Siberia has reverted to swampland incapable of supporting trees (presumably to rising water tables in areas where trees no longer transpire moisture) (95A2).

Air pollution from smelters in Russia near the borders with Norway and Finland have killed 400-1000 km2 of trees (95A2). A smelter in the Yenisey River area of north-central Siberia has killed over 4000 km2 of larch trees. An aluminum smelter at Krasnoyarsk in south central Russia killed 32,000 km2 of trees (95A2).

Boreal forests in Siberia are newly declining, primarily through clear-cut logging and fires (Ref. 5 of (95M2)). The annual loss of these forests encompasses an area twice as large as that in Brazilian Amazonia (Ref. 6 of (95M2)).

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SECTION (4-C) ~ Degradation Data for Africa ~ [C1] Brief Summary, [C2] Eastern Africa, [C3] Southern Africa , [C4] West Africa, [C5] Central Africa,

Part [C1] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Brief Summary by African Nation ~

Africa suffered a net loss of forest area exceeding nine million acres [3.6 million ha] [36,000 km2] per year between 2000-05 (FAO statement released after the African Forestry and Wildlife Commission meeting in Maputo, Mozambique, in late March of 2006). Some 60% of the world's burnt area is the result of African fires. In a typical year, about 7% of Africa burns, with some African countries experiencing rates 3-4 times that average (06U3).

Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa contributed over 25% of African forest losses. The UN FAO estimates that Sub-Saharan Africa lost over 10,000 km2 of forest annually between 2000-05 (06U3). Comments: This 25% figure is suspicious. It probably should be far larger.

Forests in Africa are lost at an estimated rate of more than 50,000 km2/ year, the highest rate of any regions in the world, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) said on 5/24/02 ("Roundup: Africa Facing Critical Choices on Environment", XINHUA General News Service 5/24/02.).

Africa - Deforestation rate up 50% in last decade (FAO data) (97U2).
Africa - Deforestation = 38,000 km2/ year (0.6%/ year) (90W1).
Africa - Deforestation rate is 36,000 km2/ year (87E1).
Africa - Forest cleared for shifting cultivation = 20-40,000 km2/ year (81B1).
Africa - Forest area now under shifting cultivation = 400,000 km2 (81B1).
Africa - Closed forests are disappearing at a rate of over 20,000 km2/ year (81B1).
Africa - Forests shrank to 33% of original extent by 1948 (76E1).
Africa - 40% of Equatorial forests have been converted to savanna (79S1).
Africa - 60% of forest cover was lost during 1850-1980 (91J1).
Africa (sub-Saharan) - Forest regeneration/ deforestation is as low as 1/32 (95M3).
Benin - Forests have all but disappeared (92R2).
Burundi - will be bare of trees in 7 years (81F1).
Cameroon - Deforestation rate is 2000 km2/ year (satellite imagery) (90R1).
Cameroon - Deforestation rate is 1000 km2/ year (FAO est., early 80s) (90R1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest shrinkage: 3,000 km2/ year (87B1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover: 150,000 (1954); 10,000 km2 now (87B1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover: 200,000 (1966); 10,000 km2 now (92R1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover down 30% during 1956-66 (83S1) (76E1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover down 33% during 1969-77 (80U1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover down 50% over the past 2 decades (88P3).
Cote d'Ivoire - Forest cover is down 75% since 1960 (90R1).
Cote d'Ivoire - 200 km2 have been cleared for agriculture (90R1).
Cote d'Ivoire - Concessions were let for 2/3 of national production forests in 7 years (90R1).
East Africa Highlands are largely deforested except for the
most inaccessible mountain areas and govt.-protected areas (76E1).
Ethiopia - is to be bare of trees in 20 years (81F1).
Ethiopia - Forest cover was 40% originally; 3.1% today (87E2).
Ethiopia - Forests vanish at 1000 km2/ year (early 60s) (75E1).
Ethiopia (Eastern Plateau) - Original forest was 75%; less than 4% today (75E1).
Ghana - Forests have all but disappeared (92R2).
Ghana - Forests no longer supply even local demand (84G1).
Ghana - 112 km2/ year cut to supply fuel-wood (91U4).
Ghana - 46,600 km2 was forested in 1938; 16,800 km2 (1981) (90M1).
Ghana - 80% of forests have disappeared
(Only 15% of timber was harvested before land clearance) (90R1).
Ghana - At present rate, hardwood like Mahogany, Odum and Afromosia used in construction/furnishing will disappear in 10 years (97U2).
Kenya - Deforestation ring around Nairobi is now 180 miles in radius (90H3).
Liberia - 1408 km2 of lowland rainforest were liquidated in 5 years (91U6).
Madagascar - 25% was forested in 1900; 13% in late 1980s (89K1).
Madagascar - 80% was forested 1500 years ago; 10% today (92R1) (89U3).
Madagascar - 95% of the original 590,000 km2 of forests have been destroyed (80N1).
Mauritania - Forest cover was reduced by 33% in a decade (3% to 2%) (88L1).
Morocco/Tunisia/ Algeria - Original forest cover was 33%; 11% in 1950 (76E1).
Niger (hills surrounding Majjia Valley) -Once-heavily wooded; these hills were almost completely deforested by the mid-70s (88P1).
Nigeria - Forests have all but disappeared (92R2).
Nigeria - Over 90% of forest-cover has been lost (86L1).
Senegal - Expected to be bare of trees in 30 years (81F1).
Sudan (Khartoum) - Acacia trees were common in 1955; Nearest Acacia trees are now 90 km. south (76E1).
Sudan (northern) - 77% of tree-cover will be gone by 2000 (87E2).
Sudan (central- and eastern provinces of Khartoum) - All tree-cover to be gone in 1987 (87E2).
West Africa - Forest cover decreased by over4%/ year in the 1980s (94C2).
West Africa - 72% of original forest cover was gone by 1985 (94C2).
West Africa - (9 countries) deforestation rate = 4-6%/ year (84P1).

Deforestation and Burned Biomass in Tropical Africa (91D1)
(Burned biomass in units of millions of tonnes/ year (dry matter))
(Deforestation (DF) in km2/ year)
Region - - - - - | DF |Burned
Northern Savanna | ~20| ~0.2
West Africa~ ~ ~ |7200| 72.0
Central Africa ~ |3490| 34.9
East Africa and~ |2470| 24.7
Madagascar ~ ~ ~ |- - - - -
Totals (Africa)-|13180|131.8
Totals (Global)-|61130|611.3
Average biomass considered is 40,000 tonnes/ km2 (dry matter); Burning efficiency of 25% (FAO data, 1988).

Part [C2] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Tanzania) -

Sub-Part [C2a] ~  Forest Degradation ~ Eastern Africa - Eritrea (now part of Ethiopia) ~

Forest cover in Eritrea: 11% in 1952, 0.5% in 1996 (Amicus Journal, Fall 1997, p. 16). (la)

Part [C3] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southern Africa ~ (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) ~

The Angolan Miombo Woodlands cover all of central Angola and extend into the Democratic Republic of Congo. These woodlands (savannas) are part of a larger miombo ecosystem that covers much of eastern and southern Africa (about 2.7 million km2 - 2% of the Earth's 129 million km2 of ice-free land and 3% of the Earth's 90 million km2 of reasonably biologically productive land). Only low quality browse is available for livestock. Soils are typically well-drained, highly leached, nutrient poor, acidic, and low in organic matter (problems associated with most tropical soils). Rainfall: 0.8 meters (south) to 1.4 meters (north and west). Humans have probably burned the vegetation in these woodlands for millennia -for agriculture, hunting and improved pasture (much like Madagascar). Because of the low productivity of the land, Angolan population densities are low (less than 5 people/ km2). Even then, poverty has produced a civil war that has been on-going since 1974. Widespread presence of the tsetse fly (and land mines) also serve to limit the populations of humans and livestock. The escalation of the Angolan civil war after the 1992 elections resulted in about 1000 people per day dying from conflict, hunger and disease (mainly civilians). About 2 million people (20% of the population of 10 million) are internally displaced. Around cities and toward the southwestern highlands, human populations are more intense and, as a result, the vegetation and soils are more degraded. The breakdown of the distribution of fuel supplies has resulted in extensive tree-cutting for firewood-gathering and charcoal manufacture. The result is large deforested areas that are slow to recover. Illegal strip mining is irreversibly modifying (degrading) woodlands, grasslands, soil structure, soil erosion, and surface drainage patterns. (Mark McGinley, "Angolan Miombo woodlands." In Encyclopedia of Earth put out by Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, June 2007, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Angolan_Miombo_woodlands/ ) (E:\ccmaster\og99.doc)

The Limpopo river basin in Mozambique has lost 99% of its original tree cover. (A 2000 flood took thousands of lives.) ("Aid agencies Gear Up in Mozambique Flood Rescue Effort", CNN, 3/1/00).

Sub-Part [C3a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southern Africa - Madagascar ~
Madagascar has lost 90% of its forests, and each year it loses 1% of what is left (
07R1) (SU2)

Roughly 70% of the primary forest in Madagascar was destroyed in 1895-1925 (93J1). Population growth didn't affect forest degradation until 1940 when vaccines were introduced that lowered death rates. During the next 40 years, population increased from 4.2 to 9.2 million. 40,000 km2 of forests were cleared during this 40-year period, as compared to 30-70,000 km2 during 1900-1940. Much of this deforestation was linked to concessionary claims, export promotion, and insecure land tenure, rather than population growth alone (93J1).

In Madagascar, 3036 km2/ year of forest is still being cut (93J1).

Sub-Part [C3b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southern Africa - Malawi ~
Malawi (southeastern Africa) is about 20% tree-covered (2004 data). Deforestation in Malawi is faster there than anywhere else. Malawi loses nearly 200 square miles (520 km2) of forests annually, a deforestation rate of 2.8%. Two-thirds of Malawi's 12 million people earn less than a dollar a day. The World Bank estimated, in 2001, that charcoal consumption in Malawi was twice what the woodlands could produce on a sustainable basis. (su2) Loggers illegally clear 100 square miles (259 km2) of forest each year in Malawi just to meet the demand for charcoal. More than 20% of Malawi's forests vanished between 1990 and 2000. Malawi's heavily populated southern half has lost up to 80% of its (original) tree cover
((Unknown) "Malawi Is Burning, and Deforestation Erodes Economy", New York Times, 11/02/05).

"Over the last five years Malawi (in southeastern Africa) has seen 2.8% deforestation/ year. Charcoal production is the biggest problem. It is illegal to make charcoal unless sustainable resources are used, but because sustainable resources are not available, the government can't enforce the law (06U3).

Malawi (Southeastern Africa) loses up to 500 km2 of trees a year. 1999 forest area: 264,280 km2. The hardwood trees take 50-100 years to mature (InterPress Service, 6/9/99).

Part [C4] ~ Forest Degradation ~ West Africa (Benin, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cote D' Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone) ~

Forestry officials and environmentalists are waging a losing battle to save dwindling tracts of tropical rain forests from loggers, cocoa plantations, and subsistence farmers in Ivory Coast. World Bank estimates 5-7 million of the country's original 70 million acres (20,000-28,000 of 280,000 km2) of forest remain. Some estimate all but national parks will be gone in the next decade (Los Angeles Times, 2/20/99).

Nine countries in Africa have 3 times the population density of any other African region. Closed forests in these countries are vanishing at 4-6%/ year (84P1).

In Cameroon (on Africa's west coast), logging concessions stretch across 76% of the total forested area (UNWire, 2/29/00).

Humid Tropical Forest Areas in Africa in 1980, and rates of deforestation for 1976-80 and 1981-85 (km2 and km2/ year) (91D1). (la)
Country - - - - -| - Area -| Deforestation
- - - - - - - - -| - (km2) |1976-80| 1981-85
Angola ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 29,000| ~400~ | ~440
Benin~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~ ~470| ~ 15~ | ~ 12
Cameroon ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~179,200| ~800~ | ~800
Cent. Afr. Repub.| ~ 35,900| ~ 50~ | ~ 50
Congo~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~213,400| ~220~ | ~220
Ivory Coast~ ~ ~ | ~ 44,580| 3100~ | 2900
Equatorial Guinea| ~ 12,950| ~ 25~ | ~ 30
Gabon~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~205,000| ~150~ | ~150
Ghana~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 17,180| ~270~ | ~220
Guinea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 20,500| ~360~ | ~360
Guinea Bissau~ ~ | ~ ~6,600| ~150~ | ~170
Kenya~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~6,900| ~110~ | ~110
Liberia~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 20,000| ~510~ | ~460
Madagascar ~ ~ ~ | ~103,000| 1650~ | 1500
Nigeria~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 59,500| 2850~ | 3000
Reunion~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~1,000| - - ~ | - -
Senegal~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~2,200| - - ~ | - -
Sierra Leone ~ ~ | ~ ~7,400| ~ 58~ | ~ 60
Tanzania ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ 14,400| ~100~ | ~100
Togo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~3,040| ~ 20~ | ~ 21
Uganda ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | ~ ~7,500| ~100~ | ~100
Zaire~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |1,056,500| 1650~ | 1800
Totals ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |2,046,220|12690~ |12500

Part [C5] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Central Africa (Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo (Belgian Congo, Zaire), Gabon, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia (Namibia)

If current trends continue, about 70% of the forests in the Congo Basin may be gone by 2040 ("African Loggers Begin to See the Light in Forests", Planet Ark, 2/28/05).

In the Congo Basin, the second-largest contiguous tropical forest after the Amazon, forested areas under logging concessions more than doubled in the last 5 years (UNWire, 2/29/00).

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SECTION (4-D) ~ Forest Degradation Data for North America ~ [D1] Alaska, [D2] California, [D3] Canada (Alberta, British Columbia) , [D4]~ Long-leafed Pine, [D5] Midwestern US, [D6] Pinion Juniper, [D7] Pacific Northwest US, [D8]~ Riparian Habitats-Western US, [D9] US, [D10] Northeastern US, [D11] Southern US,

Part [D1] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Alaska

Over 50% of the most productive forest lands of Tongass National Forest have been logged since 1950. The USFS plans to cut 81 km2/ year. Alaskan native corporations will probably do the same (89R1).

USFS plan for Tongass National Forest released 5/23/97 called for reducing the maximum amount of cutting by 50% (James Gerstenzang, Los Angeles Times; GREENLines Issue #387, 5/26/97).

A 1972 Leopold-Barrett Report on the USFS management of the Yakutat Working Circle in Tongass National Forest noted that the USFS contracted to cut all timber in the working circle over 50 years, in spite of its stated intent to use a 120-year rotation there. In 1974 the USFS announced that the annual cut on the Tongass and Chugach National Forests would be increased by 24% (75S1).

The Clinton Administration is placing 234,000 acres of Tongass National Forest in Alaska off-limits to logging and other development. In addition, the administration announced cuts to the timber harvest by 30%/ year, and the amount of land open for logging will be reduced to 576,000 acres, some of which can only be harvested once every 200 years. The protections will be added to the 1997 forest management plan and remain in effect until 2007 (AP, 4/14/99).

Part [D2] ~ Forest Degradation ~ California ~

The US Forest Service has proposed revisions to the Sierra Nevada Framework that could double logging, allow more cattle grazing, and aggressively "thin" forests in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Trees up to 30 inches in diameter could be cut in old-growth forests. The usual limit is 12 inches ("Sierra Nevada Logging May Double", Sacramento Bee, 3/7/03).

Pacific Lumber Co. owns 765 km2 of coastal redwoods that it plans to cut in 20 years. This inventory is 75% of the world's native coastal redwoods outside national parks (88B2).

The USFS report "Prospects for Sawtimber Output in California's North Coast" stated that the current cutting rate of redwoods would require substantial reductions by 1987, and a 90% drop in harvest rate by 1995 (77S1).

The USFS timber management plan for Six Rivers National Forest calls for cutting all 1843 km2 of commercial forest in 48 years (72U2). (140 years is considered a normal rotation length in that forest (72U2).)

Part [D3] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Canada ~

In Canada the logging companies are moving into slow-growing, "ecologically sensitive" northern boreal forests, with 90% of logging being done in old-growth and other primary forests - mostly clear-cutting (UNWire, 2/29/00).

Logging rate in Canada is 10,000 km2/ year (95A2).

Canada is losing 2000 km2 / year of forest, as cutting exceeds regeneration by a wide margin (93B1). Comments: Canada was supposed to a law requiring sustained yield in its forest management.

Royal Bank of Canada president Rowland Frazee reports: "Years of complacency and short-sightedness are now coming home to roost. Already there are wood shortages in some parts of Canada (83S1).

Ken Hearnden, one of Canada's leading forestry experts, on reviewing Canada's abysmal record of forest management, expressed the belief that nothing meaningful will be done about forest management until Canada runs out of forests. He recalls the history of European forestry where timber famines provided the necessary impetus to provoke intense silvicultural practices. Hearnden also noted that Yugoslavian and Italian hillsides were once covered with productive forests in areas where logging and grazing have converted these same fertile slopes to barren rocks (83S1).

A Canadian government discussion paper on forest sector strategy stated "Only a fraction (of Canada's) forests are managed for sustained production" (Ref. 2 of (83S1)).

In New Brunswick, softwood cuts have exceeded sustainable limits by at least 15% in recent years (p. 71 of Ref. (83S1)).

Sub-Part [D3a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Canada - Alberta ~
In the past 2 years, Alberta has granted pulp, paper and lumber companies rights to 199,000 km2 of forest. A project proposed by ALPHC (a Japanese Corporation) involves 72,500 km2 - 11% of Alberta (90S1).

Deals made with timber companies by Alberta's government, including hundreds of millions in subsidies, involve 78% of forested area. Increased cutting needed to feed Alberta's 7 new mills will liquidate the forests there in 20 years (97U1).

Sub-Part [D3b] ~ Forest Degradation - Canada - British Columbia ~
About 2/3 of Canada's coastal rainforest has been degraded by logging and development (98A1).

Current timber cutting rates imply an end to Canada's coastal rainforests in 15 years (93D3) (90R2).

Timber cutting rate in British Columbia exceeds sustained yield by 30% (91P1).

Some 2700 km2 of British Columbia forests are logged yearly. Sustainable yield of timber from the 25% of the Province considered "productive forest land" is estimated at 59 million m3/ year. (actual cut: 75 million m3/ year (91M2).)

Under current market conditions, BC's coastal rainforest would be gone in 17 years (89R1) (University of B.C. study).

B.C. logs over 2430 km2/ year - greater than the total cut from all national forests in the US (93U2).

In British Columbia, average area denuded by logging on Crown-regulated land was 1420 km2/ year during 1974-78 (80W2).

In 1978, 75 million m3 of timber were extracted from B.C. Its value was over $6 billion. It generated forest revenues of $183 million (80W3). 1660 km2 were logged - 1400 by clearcutting, 160 by selective logging (80W3).

Sub-Part [D3c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Canada - Ontario ~
Ontario's softwood sawtimber harvest has been held above sustainable levels in the past, and will have to be reduced in coming decades as sawlog inventories are depleted (OMNR(1992) (in 99N1)).

Part [D4] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Long-leaf pine ~

Of the original 243,000 km2 of long-leaf pine in the US, less than 16,000 km2 remain (95U1).

North Carolina had 2700 km2 of long-leaf pine in 1955; 1030 km2 in 1990 (95U1).

Part [D5] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Midwestern US ~

Harvesting of aspen in Minnesota has been exceeding the rate of regeneration. It's normally a 40-year cycle, but they have been harvesting aspen as if it's a 25-year cycle (03P1).

8 Arkansas counties and 6 Missouri counties in the Upper White River watershed have converted 3240 km2 of forest to fescue grass monoculture for beef during 1966-73. (The total White River drainage contains 28,500 km2 (74S1).)

Missouri lost 8094 km2 of forestland during 1760-1970 (75U1).

Missouri has declared a 2-year moratorium on permits for new chip mills ("The Changing Role of Timber Harvest in Our National Forest", Chief Mike Dombeck, USDA Forest Service, in American Forest and Paper Association, Washington DC 5/22/00).

Part [D6] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Pinion-Juniper ~

During 1950-72 the USFS and BLM cleared ("chained") over 13,000 km2 of pinion-juniper to re-create grazing land (84R1). Comments: Over-grazed grasslands often convert naturally to pinon-juniper, and taxpayer-financed subsidies convert pinon-juniper to grassland, so the net result is little more than a bottomless pit for tax dollars. Chaining has now largely ceased.

Planning for large-scale logging of northwestern juniper woodlands for wood products is underway. (94S5) In regions where soil nitrogen levels are low, and plant nitrogen limited, such activities might not only be unsustainable, but they might significantly alter and degrade whole ecosystems. Most nitrogen in junipers is in above-ground tissues (96B1).

Part [D7] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Pacific Northwest US ~

Douglas fir rain forests of California, Oregon and Washington: 85% of the original old-growth forest has been logged, according to Wilderness Society estimates (89R1). The USFS cuts 240 km2/ year (89R1).

In Washington and Oregon, 70,000 km2 of the 100,000 km2 of commercial forestland were in old growth in 1890. 20,000 km2 remain (90H5).

No more than 10-15% of the 60-80,000 km2 of original old growth in the Pacific Northwest remains today. Timber harvests on public lands in the western US will drop by 40+% by 2000, even without environment-inspired limits. At current cutting rates, all old growth logging will disappear within 20 years (92R4).

Harvest levels on the 12 national forests in the rainforest region of the Pacific Northwest exceeded timber growth by 61% during the 1980s (89R1).

Plum Creek Timber Company is logging its Pacific Northwest empire (5670 km2) at twice the rate it can regenerate itself. The company says it has never been on a sustained-yield program (90F2).

Weyerhauser liquidated its Molalla Tree Farm (142 km2) in 24 years (72E1).

At current harvest rates, Oregon's existing private timberlands will last 17 years (75U2) (Library of Congress research report).

At current harvest rates, Washington's existing private timberlands will last 23 years (75U2) (Library of Congress research report).

Part [D8] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Riparian Habitats (western US) ~

US western public lands: Most riparian groves have been virtually eliminated by over-grazing, grazing-induced flooding, logging-induced flooding, dams and developments (91J1).

US southwest: Most cottonwood and mesquite bosques are gone (91J1). Comments: Ref. (91J1) goes into detail on destruction of western US riparian habitats (largely by grazing).

Part [D9] ~ Forest Degradation ~ United States ~

By WWI, US forestland had declined by 60%, i.e. by 1.5 million km2. Since then, 0.5 million km2 of reforestation has occurred (79S1).

During 1630-1920, the US lost 1.36 million km2 of forest cover (88P1).

By the early 20th Century, 1/3 of US forests had disappeared (76E1).

During 1962-1977, the US lost commercial forestland at a rate of 8100 km2/ year (82W1).

US forest cover in 1982 (2.33 million km2) was 10% less than in 1963 and was the smallest area in US history (88P1).

The last tropical lowland rainforest (Wao Kele O Pura, 109 km2) in the US is being converted to a geothermal development (90M2).

Louisiana's delta: Hardwood forests are being cleared at 445 km2/ year. At this rate they will be depleted by 1991 (71J1).

Bitterroot National Forest (Idaho?): two district rangers stated that, at present cutting rates, timber on their districts would be gone in 5-10 years (75B1).

Growth of yellow pine (420,000 km2/ year in the southeast) declined 30-50% during 1955-85. During 1975-85, dead pine increased from 9% of all trees to 15% (90B1) (USFS data).

Southern US: Only 30% of the acres of harvested pines are regenerated, and only 10% is regenerated by planting (87K3).

Some 717 km2 of USFS land have not been replanted (some cut in the 1950s) (76U1). Comments: Natural regeneration is extremely slow on arid lands. Frequently regeneration can occur only in the shade of another tree.

Part [D10] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Northeastern US ~

Much of the timber harvest in the 12 US "frost-belt" states is concentrated on removing sawlogs and veneer logs. It leaves behind poorly stocked stands of firewood and pulpwood (99N1).

Chesapeake Bay region's tree canopy has declined from 51% cover to 37% in the last 25 years (USDA News Release, 12/7/99). http://www.usda.gov/news/releases/1999/12/0478.

Part [D11] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Southern US ~

In a study of the health and sustainability of forests in 13 states: AL, AR, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX and VA, population has roughly doubled, from 40 million to 80 million people, in 30 years. During the same time, stands of natural pine have decreased from 70 to 40 million acres, while industry-managed pine plantations have increased. A coalition of 60 environmental groups in 17 states, Dogwood Alliance, has called for a moratorium on new chip mills in North Carolina ("Booming Population Fuels Southern Forest Study", AP (8/19/99)).

For most of the US South's pine-producing region, the growth-to-drain ratio averages 0.68 - significantly lower than USFS estimates (99N1) "There is firm evidence that coniferous inventories are declining in most of the US South's major timber-growing regions, and for the next 15-20 years there will not be enough coniferous volume to meet current mill requirements" (99N1).

Florida's coastal forests are being squeezed between rising sea levels and inland development, agriculture and logging. Research into cabbage palms finds that coastal forests with "30-40 canopy species" are not regenerating and dying out. Many "age-old coastal forest habitats," that historically have been able to retreat inland, are now trapped in a "narrow ribbon with no place to move" (ENN 12/2/99).

The Dogwood Alliance, on 4/27/99, praised a recent decision by federal agencies to comprehensively review the health of southeastern forests. But the groups also called for a moratorium on new chip mills until the study is completed. "If chip mill construction continues at the current pace, any practical results of this two-year study could be moot." Also in April of 1999 40 organizations representing hunting, fishing and outdoor recreation communities wrote Vice President Gore asking for a regional study on the effects of chip mills. In 10 years the number of chip mills in the region has tripled to 150, consuming over 1 million acres of forest in 1998 (GREENLines, 5/3/99). Comments: Chip mills are expanding northward.

The USFS, TVA, and EPA will begin a study examining timber supplies and logging levels in southeastern forests. Timber harvest levels have increased 40% in the past 20 years. Environmentalists have long claimed the increasing numbers of chip mills in the region are threatening forest ecosystems by stripping land bare of vegetation (Charlotte Observer 3/26/99).

On 7/8/98 a group of 100 scientists, led by Harvard University ecologist E.O. Wilson, warn the Clinton Administration (in a letter to the EPA and US Fish and Wildlife Service) that explosive logging growth in the Southeastern US threatens to destroy some of the richest temperate forests on earth. The destruction was attributed to the proliferation of chip mills. The letter called for a moratorium on chip mill permits pending a study of cumulative impacts of the mills and logging (GREENLines Issue #667, 7/13/98 GrassRoots Environmental Effectiveness Network).

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SECTION (4-E) ~ Degradation data for South- and Central America - [E1] Summary Table, [E2] Amazon Basin, [E3]~ Northern South America, [E4] Andean Mountain Region, [E5] Brazil, [E6] Central America , [E7] Caribbean , [E8]~ Mexico, [E9] Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay,

Part [E1] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Summary Table ~

Latin America's deforestation rate around 1990 was 123,000 km2/ year (1.3%/ year) (90W1).
Latin America's deforestation rate is 110,000 km2/ year (Ref. 6 of (91M1)).
Latin America's rainforests are being cleared at 100,000 km2/ year (80N1) FAO data.
Originally Latin America's forested area was 6.93 million km2 (88W2).
Estimated Latin American forest area in 2000 was 3.66 million km2 (88W2).

In Latin America, 50-100,000 km2/ year are cleared for agriculture - mostly for temporary farming (76E1) (FAO study) (73A1). Comments: Very little Latin American land in the tropics can support agriculture for more than a few years before it must be abandoned (fallowed) for a few decades.

The ratio of forest regeneration to deforestation in Latin America = 1:6 (95M3).

During 1970-90, Latin Americans converted over 200,000 km2 of tropical moist forest to cattle pasture (100,000 in the Brazilian Amazon, 15,000 in Colombia, and 5000 in Peru (91D1).

Deforestation in Central America in the 1980s (90W1) (km2/ year)
Country - -|Closed Forest |Open Forest
Belize ~ ~ | ~ ~90 (0.7%) | ?
Costa Rica | 1,240 (7.6%) | ?
El Salvador| ~ ~50 (3.2%) | ?
Guatemala~ | ~ 900 (2.0%) | ?
Honduras ~ | ~ 900 (2.3%) | ?
Mexico ~ ~ | 5,950 (1.3%) |200
Nicaragua~ | 1,210 (2.7%) | ?
Panama ~ ~ | ~ 360 (0.9%) | ?
Totals ~ ~ |10,700 (1.6%) | ?
Source: FAO, Rome, 1988

Deforestation in South America (1980s) (90W1) (km2/ year)
Country -|Closed Forest |Open Forest
Argentina| ~ ~ ? (?. %) | ~ ~ ?
Bolivia~ | ~ 870 (0.2%) | ~ 300
Brazil ~ |80,000 (2.2%) |10,500
Chile~ ~ | ~ ~ ? (?. %) | ~ ~ ?
Colombia | 8,200 (1.8%) | ~ 700
Ecuador~ | 3,400 (2.4%) | ~ ~ 0
Guyana ~ | ~ ~20 (0.0%) | ~ ~10
Paraguay | 1,900 (4.7%) | ~ 220
Peru ~ ~ | 2,700 (0.4%) | ~ ~ 0
Suriname | ~ ~30 (0.0%) | ~ ~ ?
Uruguay~ | ~ ~ ? (?. %) | ~ ~ ?
Venezuela| 1,250 (0.4%) | 1,200
Totals ~ |98,370 (1.5%) |12,930+
Source: FAO, Rome, 1988

Some 36% of South America's original moist forest exists today (76H1) (FAO data).

South America's original tropical Andes forest area was 101,000 km2; 34,800 km2 of this remained around 1990 (91W1).

Part [E2] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Amazon Basin ~

Area deforested in the Brazilian Amazon: 30,000 km2 in 1975; 600,000+ km2 today - over 16% of the Brazilian Amazon. Twice as much area was affected biologically (98A2).

In late 1996, the area of Amazonian forest under concession to Asian firms has nearly quadrupled to 121,000 km2 (96F1) (98A1).

As a result of the road-building and integration programs, Amazon deforestation increased from 30,000 km2 in 1975 to at least 600,000 km2 today (98A1). Comments: These numbers are probably cumulative numbers - not per year.

Amazon deforestation: 5,750 mi2 (14,900 km2) in 1994; 4,298 mi2 (11,100 km2) in 1991 (1980s rate was nearly double this.) (Satellite data reported by EDF in 9/97 Reuters News Service.).

Brazilian Forest Fires in July of:
Year~ | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995
Number|17,800|13,100|19,800| 8,500|40,000
(1995 is NASA data)
(Brazil National Space Research Institute (INPE) Data (96A1))

Most fires are in Acre and Rondonia on the Peruvian- and Bolivian borders, and in Para in Northeast Brazil.

Satellite imagery (1975) revealed that colonization and development projects had destroyed over 160,000 km2 (cumulative??) of the Amazon Basin's 4.0 million km2 of forests (80N1).

Over 80% of Amazonia cumulative deforestation occurred in the 1980s. Population growth in the region is 6%/ year. 14% of the original Amazonia forests have been destroyed (89L1).

Amazon Basin deforestation has increased from 201,000 km2 (cumulative to 1980) to 965,000 km2, i.e. to 12% of the Basin's 7.8 million km2 (89G1) (World Bank data).

Some 7% of the Amazon Basin has been deforested (90W1).

Brazilian satellite studies found that fires destroyed 48,400 km2 of Amazon rainforest in 1988. 35% was either virgin rainforest or savanna (89U1). Comments: Much of this was for creating grazing lands.

Satellite data show Amazon Basin deforestation peaked in 1987 at 80,000 km2/ year, dropping to 48,000 km2 in 1988 and 30,000 km2/ year in 1989 (Ref. 35 of (91P2)).

In 1987, 207,200 km2 of the Amazon basin were cleared by farmers and ranchers. The 1988 burn was 2.42% of the 5.18 million km2 that is considered the Amazon (89U1).
12% of the entire Amazon basin forest area is estimated to have been destroyed over the past century. 8.4% of the Amazon rainforest has been destroyed in this century by another estimate (89U1).

In 1988, Setzer used satellite data to calculate that 80,000 km2 (2.2%) of forest were cleared during 1987 within the legal Amazon (93M1). This caused the WRI to raise its estimate of global deforestation from 164,000 to 204,000 km2/ year (93M1). This seemed to agree with the UNFAO which put tropical deforestation at 170,000 km2/ year during 1981-90 (93M1). INEP researchers challenged Setzer's 1988 technique and used Landsat data to compute deforestation within the Amazon Basin of 21,000 km2/ year during 1978-89 and 14,000 km2/ year during 1989-90 (93M1).

During 1966-78, 80,000 km2 of Amazon forest became cattle ranches (84P1). (la)

Deforestation rate of Amazon forests was 4%/ year (81B1).

Part [E3] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Northern South America ~

Sub-part [E3a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Northern South America - Benin ~
Forests of Benin have all but disappeared (92R3).

Sub-part [E3b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Northern South America -Colombia ~
About 4000 km2/ year of tree- and brush cover are cleared for forage and cropland in Colombia (91J1). Only 1% of Colombia's deforested land is replanted (78B1).

Colombia's deforestation rate in 1987 was 8900 km2/ year (90W1).

6100-8900 km2/ year of Colombia's forests are deforested, indicating depletion in 40 years (93W5).

Under Colombia's plans to develop their economy, the Pacific area has become targeted for the extraction and exportation of natural resources in the last 10 years. Under Plan Pacifico, 1600 km2/ year (2.2% of total forest area) are cut for wood and paper or to make way for agro-industrial production of African palm (93B2).

During 1970-90, Colombians converted 15,000 km2 of tropical moist forest to cattle pasture (5000 km2 in Peru) (91D1).

Sub-Part [E3c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Northern South America -Venezuela ~
Over 32 million acres (130,000 km2) of Venezuela's forests are destroyed annually for more arable land, housing, primary resources, and as an effect of global warming. Over the past 5 years Venezuela has ranked among the top 10 countries with the highest deforestation rates. Between 1982-95, Venezuela suffered an annual deforestation of over 2600 km2/ year. Certain areas were devastated with several states losing a third or more of their wooded regions. The number one cause of deforestation is agricultural expansion. By 1994, 1262 illegal occupants affected 39% of the Ticoporo Forest Reserve; 44% of Caparo Forest Reserve had been occupied by illegal squatters. Logging, fire and mining play important roles in the deforestation. From 1950-75, Venezuela's forests were reduced due to development, roads and increased population. About half of Venezuela is forested, just under 500,000 km2. But over 80% of Venezuela's forests are located south of the Orinoco River. Most Venezuelan deforestation has occurred north of the Orinoco River
("Mision Arbol: Reforesting Venezuela," Venezuelanalysis.com, 6/26/06.). (su2)

During the 1980s, Venezuela's forests disappeared at 5840 km2/ year (FAO data) (95C1).

About 20% of Venezuela's forested area was lost during 1961-70 (78B1).

Forest area in Venezuela dropped 33% during 1950-70 (78W2) (report by J. P. Veillon).

Clearance rate of Venezuela's moist forest: 0.6% -1.5% of remaining forest area/ year (78W2) (FAO data).

Venezuela, north of the Orinoco River, has lost 1/3 of its tropical rainforest in the past 25 years (probably 1950 to 1975) (76H1).

Between 1981-90 Venezuela's average deforestation rate increased to more than double the level registered in the 1970s, reaching an average of 6000 km2/ year (1.2%/ year) (UNFAO data). 60,000 km2 of forests were lost between 1981-90 (95C1).

About 20% of Venezuelan deforestation registered during the '80s is associated directly or indirectly to timber extraction. Although only a few trees are harvested per ha, up to a third of the biomass is either destroyed or severely damaged during logging (95C1).

Part [E4] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Andean Mountain Region ~

Sub part [E4a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Andean Mountain Region - Bolivia ~
Bolivia's forest cover is being removed at 3000 km2/ year - largely for conversion to livestock grazing (p. 357 of (91J1)). (la)

Sub-part [E4b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Andean Mountain Region -Chile ~
With current methods of exploitation, all of Chile's native forests will be deforested in 20 years (97H2) (1995 Central Bank of Chile report).

A 1995 Central Bank of Chile report estimates that 1200 km2 of Chilean forest are destroyed each year. Of this, 600-900 km2 are replaced with tree plantations (97H2). Comments: This statement is also in the section on plantation inventory data.

Chile's Valdivian Forest is one of the last two extensive temperate rainforests on Earth. Today 18% (under 2590 km2) of the original alerce forest range survives in the rugged, rainy coastal mountains south of Puerto Montt (90K2).

At current rates of logging, native coastal forests of Chile's Maule region will last 30 years (89R1).

In the Bio-Bio- and Maule regions of south-central Chile, 28% of the original old-growth forest remains (89R1).

Chilean deforestation rate in the 1970s was 600 km2/ year (78B1).

Much of Chile's exports of chips and pulp have come from the natural forests displaced by plantations. During 1978-87, 486 km2 of native forests were cut or burned so plantations could be installed. Two exotic pine and eucalyptus species now cover close to 20% of Chile's total forest area (98M1).

Sub-part [E4c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Andean Mountain Region -Ecuador ~
Forests of western Ecuador have all but disappeared (92R2) (92R3).

1300 km2 of Ecuador's forests were destroyed in 1980, and its Amazon rainforest are expected to be gone by 2035 (85W1).

Reforestation in Ecuador in 1987 was 3400 km2/ year (90W1).

Sub-part [E4d] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Andean Mountain Region - Peru ~
Since the 1950s, Peru has cleared 85,000 km2 of Amazon forest for cattle grazing and cropland. Most is now abandoned (95D1). Comments: Tropical forests under grazing- or cropping management require fallow periods of 20 or so years to recover from 3 or so years of cropping or 8-10 years of grazing.

During 1970-90, Peruvians converted 5,000 km2 of tropical moist forest to cattle pasture (91D1).

Deforestation was 18,000 km2 in 1979-82 (10% via drug lords) (Ref. 24 of (95D1)).

Part [E5] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Brazil ~

A study of the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon showed that selectively logged areas ranged from 4830 miles2 (12,510 km2) to 7,929 miles2 (20,536 km2) per year between 1999 and 2002. Those areas are equivalent to an increase of 60- to123% in deforestation greater than previous estimates (05N1).

Studies by Brazil's Ministry of Mines and Energy and by the Ministry of the Environment note that, in the past decade, the forest cover in the caatinga (the biome exclusive of the Brazilian semi-arid lands) was reduced by 30% in area. This was caused mainly by the operation of industrial parks that use native species of the caatinga as a source of energy. A Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Institute study found that only 3% of the entire consumption of caatinga forest products or sub-products comes from projects of sustainable forest management. It forecasted that in the next 5 years (by 2011), 20% of Brazil's remaining caatinga forest cover will have disappeared. (Marco Bahe, "Brazil loses US$800 million/ year with desertification," Brazil-Arab News Agency, 6/13/06.)

Brazil's rainforest is worse off than government data indicate, with 47% now occupied by man or logged, the environmental group Imazon found (Wall Street Journal, 11/24/04, p. A1.)

The Brazilian rainforest was largely intact until 1970. Since then 14% of it has been lost. In 1999, 17,000 km2 were "deforested". Comments: Does "deforested" mean harvested or converted to other uses? (Geoff Dyer, "Brazilian Forest Logging Escalates", Financial Times, 4/13/00).

The Brazilian Amazon lost 128,000 km2 to deforestation between 1980-95 (IFPRI Research Report 129, December, 2002).

Brazil's jungle is disappearing at more than 6,000 square miles/ year (15,500 km2/ year) and will accelerate as the government moves ahead with a program aimed at improving the livelihoods of the people. Soybean production has begun to play a big role in the deforestation of Brazil (02U3). (China is the world's biggest importer of soy products, and Brazil is rushing to meet that demand.)

Within 3 years, the deforestation rate in the Amazon had doubled, to an area the size of Maryland (annually?) (02U3).

New satellite information from Brazil has revealed a sharp increase in the rate of destruction of the Amazonian rainforest. The information shows the speed of deforestation increased by 40% between 2001 and 2002 to reach its highest rate since 1995. Figures from the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) show more than 25,000 km2 of forest were cleared in a year - mainly for farming (03U1).

In 2002: 9,840 square miles (25,476 km2) of forest lost
In 2001: 7,010 square miles (18,166 km2) of forest lost
Environmental organizations say one major cause is the spread of large-scale soya farming in the southern Amazon. Soya production is growing rapidly in the area as a crop that offers large profits for farmers and gives a sizable boost to Brazil's trade accounts. But campaigners also blame the authorities for failing to enforce environmental protection laws. The new Environment Minister, Marina da Silva, who has long campaigned to protect the Amazon, has promised to action but she inherits a difficult situation. On the one hand, Brazil has a new multi-million dollar satellite and radar monitoring system providing plenty of accurate data as to where deforestation is occurring. But budget cuts on the ground mean that environmental protection agents often do not even have enough money to buy petrol for their boats and cars, let alone mount operations to arrest illegal loggers and farmers, our correspondent says. Likewise, loopholes and corruption in Brazil's chaotic judicial system means those caught destroying the forest almost always go unpunished. In the last 15 years, 243,000 km2 have been deforested - 5% of the Brazilian Amazon (

In 1998 the Brazilian government released satellite data showing that annual area deforested in its Amazon rainforest tripled between 1990-91 and 1994-95 to over 29,000 km2/ year (98A2).

A study based on airplane surveys and on-the-ground surveys (instead of satellite images) found that Brazil's Amazon rain forest is being destroyed or badly damaged more than twice as fast as normally believed. 1998 loss: 17,000 sq. mi. (44,000 km2) (vs. Brazilian estimate of 5,700 sq. miles). 217,000 sq. miles (16%) of original rain forest has been spoiled over the years (vs. official Brazilian estimate of 13%) (AP, 4/8/99).

The Brazilian Amazon lost 16,926 km2 of rain forest in 1999, slightly down from 17,383 km2 destroyed in 1998 (Reuters 4/12/00) (GREENLines Issue #1121, 5/2/00).

Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is increasingly threatened by logging and habitat loss. Loggers are over-harvesting populations in the tropical forests of Brazil, the largest exporter of mahogany, as well as Bolivia, Peru, Central America, and Mexico. Many logging operations are harvesting the species unsustainably from old-growth forests. Up to half of the mahogany logged is taken illegally from parks, reserves, and indigenous areas. Mahogany logging is one of the leading catalysts for tropical deforestation. At least half of the mahogany harvested is exported. The US imports 8 times more mahogany than any other known importing country in the world. (GREENLines, 11/2/99, Contact Margot Bass, Center for International Environmental Law 202-785-8700 or Mary Munson, Defenders of Wildlife 202-682-9400x263).

Brazil's Atlantic rain forest, or "Mata Atlantica," is now one of the 5 most-threatened regions in the world (7% remains) (Reuters, 9/22/99).

In Brazil's Amazon rain forest, 58,500 km2 was slashed, burned or cleared between 1995-97. Brazilian deforestation: 30,000 km2 in 1995, 13,500 km2 in 1997 (Wall Street Journal, 1/27/98).

In 1500 subtropical forest of the Southeast Brazilian coastal provinces covered 500,000 km2 - about 6% of the total land area of Brazil. By the early 20th Century, only a few patches of the primary forest remained (Ref. 6 of (84R1)). 95,000 km2 of forest were cleared during the 100-year (1690-1790) gold rush (Ref. 7 of (84R1)). Only after 1900 were conservation issues raised, and small forest reserves established for biological research stations (Ref. 8 of (84R1)).

Atlantic tropical forests of Brazil once covered 1 million km2, but now cover 20,000 km2 (91W1) (86L1). (la)

Brazil's Atlantic coastal rainforest and the coniferous Arancaria forests of the south have been 95% destroyed by logging and urban expansion (92R2).

Some 14% of Amazon forest has been cleared (Brazilian government estimate) (89R1).

In Belim (east of Para River, north of Guama River), 21,000 km2 have been entirely cleared of forest (56G1).

Only 10% of the area in Brazil destroyed by shifting cultivation has been reforested (Ref. 20 of (78B1)) (UN study).

Brazil's Amazon is deforested at a rate of 17,000 to 80,000 km2/ year (90W1). Thus the global deforestation rate could be 139,000 to 204,000 km2/ year (90W1). Comments: These figures seem to be much higher than most other estimates.

In 1910, 60% of Sao Paulo (250,000 km2) was covered with virgin forests (77A2). By 1950 20% of Sao Paulo was still forested (77A2). (la)

In (Brazil's) state of Parana during 1953-63, over 3% of the 1953 forest area of 65,000 km2 was cleared yearly (77A2).

Forest area outside the Amazon (mostly open forest) is decreasing at 10,500 km2/ year (90W1).

In 1987, 80,000 km2 of virgin forest in the Brazilian Amazon were cleared (burned) (Ref. 4 of (90W1)) (89D2) (89D1) (Brazil's National Institute of Space report). But 1987 may be anomalous because it was the last year for government tax credits for land-clearing (90W1).

Brazil's space agency (INPE) estimates that 19,000 km2 of Brazil's forests were cleared in 1989 (91U3). An INPE remote-sensing survey in 1988 showed average deforestation in Brazil's Amazon to be 17,000 km2/ year over a 10-year period (90W1).

Skole and Tucker used Landsat images for 1977 and 1988 that showed cumulative deforested area = 78,000 km2 in 1978 and 230,000 km2 in 1988 (i.e. a deforestation rate of 15,000 km2/ year) (93M1) (93S1).

Brazil's deforestation rate has dropped 30% over the past 2 years (91U3). 1990 deforestation = 5-10,000 km2/ year (91U3).

Planned construction of 145 major hydro-electric dams in Brazil would flood 250,000 km2 of tropical forests (88W1).

By the late 1970s, 15,000 km2 of pasture had been established in the Brazilian Amazon (88P1).

During 1970-90, Brazilians converted 100,000 km2 of tropical moist forest to cattle pasture (91D1) (la).

Brazil' closed-forest deforestation rate during 1981-85: 14,800 km2/ year (0.4%/ year) (FAO estimate) (p.102 of (90W1)).

The World Bank's financing of a mine, a 780 km railway, and a deep-water seaport, destroyed 150,000 km2 of Brazil's tropical rainforests (96G1).

Brazilian deforestation: 11,130 km2 in the 1990-91 burning season; 14,890 km2 in 1994 (Pittsburgh Post Gazette, 9/15/96).

Sub-part [E5a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Brazil - Rondonia and Mato Grosso ~
Rondonia and Mato Grosso have lost nearly 25% of their forests, mostly since 1980 (89S1). Rondonia (the size of Great Britain) will be deforested by 1990 (85U1). This deforestation is a product of a huge World Bank-financed road-building project that bought in 200,000 people in 1984 (85U1).

Rondonia's deforested area was 3% of Rondonia in 1980 and 24% in 1988 (90W1).

Half of Rondonia's tropical forest will disappear by the early 1990s, and all will be gone by 2000 (89P3).

Part [E6] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Central America ~

A map showing 1982 tropical rainforest in Central America, and deforestation since 1940 is in Ref. (83N1).

About 1/3 of the original Central American forest remains; the final third will go over the next 20 years (Ref. 6 of (80N1)).

Forest covered 60% of Central America in 1960. It covered 40% in 1980 (88P1).

In Central America and northwestern South America, forests are diminishing at 2%/ year and are likely to be completely removed from arable areas by 2000 (81B1).

Deforestation rates in Central America are 3.2%/ year -mostly to cattle ranching (Nations and Komer, 1983). Much of the impetus is to provide low-grade beef for the US fast-food industry (Parsons, 1976) (86B1).

Ranching, primarily for export beef, has indirectly leveled half of Central America's forest since 1960 (89D2).

During 1960-1990, over 40% of Central America's rainforest was converted to cow pasture (91J1).

During 1961-78, pastures in Central America expanded 53%, while forests and woodlands declined by 39%. Much of this conversion was driven by US demand for cheap beef (88P1) (84G1).

Central America's Forest- and Pasture Areas (91D1) (1000 km2) (See plot in Ref.(91D1)) (la)
Year - |1965|1970|1975|1980|1985|1988
Forest | 280| 240| 220| 200| 185| 180
Pasture| ~90| 110| 120| 125| 135| 140

Total~ | 370| 350| 340| 325| 320| 320

Lowland and Lower Montane Tropical Rainforest of Central America un-degraded in mid-1982 and loss rate (83N1) (Inventories are in km2; Loss rates in km2/ year)
Nation - - |Invent. |Loss Rate
Nicaragua~ | 28,000 |1000
Guatemala~ | 26,300 | 600
Panama ~ ~ | 22,000 | 500
Honduras ~ | 20,000 | 700
Costa Rica | 16,000 | 600
Belize ~ ~ | ~9,800 | ~32
Mexico ~ ~ | ~8,000 | 600
El Salvador| ~ ~ ~0 | ~ 0
Totals ~ ~ |130,100 |4032

Sub-part [E6a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Central America - Costa Rica ~

Forested area in Costa Rica has shrunk from 20% to 2% of total land area in the past 2 decades (86H1). A comment by D. H. Janzen (Science (1/2/87)) points out that this is true of the dry forest only. Costa Rica has 20% of its land in explicitly conserved national parks and reserves.

About 1/3 of Costa Rica's forest cover vanished in 10 years (Cannon et al, 1978) (80U1).

Deforestation rate in Costa Rica is 6.6%/ year (90W1). 1984 forest cover was 18% (90W1).

Deforestation rate in Costa Rica = 1500 km2/ year (satellite imagery) (500 km2/ year according to an FAO estimate in the early 1980s) (90R1).

A WRI report "The World's Resources, 1990-91", finds Costa Rica being deforested at a rate of 7%/ year (91U1).

In 10 years, no productive forests will remain, outside the 10% of Costa Rican territory in national parks and reserves (87U1). The landless are moving into national parks in search of sustenance (87U1). Comments: This statement is also in the section on inventory - protected forests.

The Costa Rican government estimates that, by 1994, no commercially exploitable forest will remain (87K2).

Closed-forest deforestation in Costa Rica during 1981-85 was 650 km2/ year (4.0%/ year) (p. 102 of (90W1)) (FAO data).

Sub-part [E6b] ~ Central America - Honduras ~
In Honduras, despite efforts of global and national environmental organizations to stop deforestation, broadleaf forests are disappearing at a rate of 8%/ year. (11/5/99 UN Wire)

Sub-Part [E6c] ~ Central America ~ El Salvador ~
Forests in El Salvador have all but disappeared (92R2) (92R3).

Tropical deciduous forest cover in El Salvador was once 90%. It has been destroyed by centuries of clearance for grazing, plantations, mining, charcoal manufacture and especially within the last century, the spread of subsistence cultivation (76E1).

Sub-Part [E6d] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Central America - Nicaragua ~
The Nicaraguan government signed an agreement to allow a Taiwanese company to log 3750 km2 (1/8 of Nicaragua's remaining forest) over 20 years (92A2).

Sub-Part [E6e] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Central America - Panama ~
About 2/3 of Panama's natural forests have been lost (92R1). Less than 10% of Panama will be forested by 2000. A century ago, Panama was 97% forested (92R1).

The Panama Canal watershed has been deforested 70% (43 km2/ year during 1952-76; 26 km2/ year during 1976-84, and 3 km2/ year during 1984-87) (88W3).

A 1979 survey found that deforested lands that are now too degraded to support agriculture now cover 23% of Panama (82C1). (su2)

Part [E7] ~ Forest Degradation - Caribbean ~

Sub-Part [E7a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Caribbean - Haiti ~

Haiti's forests have all but disappeared by around 1990 (92R2) (92R3).

In the mid-1950s, Haiti was 80% forested. Now 9% is forested, and half of that is scrub (77J1).

In 1923, 63% of Haiti was forested. Today 2% of Haiti is forested (88M2).

Forests once covered most of Haiti. Now 40-50 million trees/ year are cut for firewood, cropland and charcoal. At the current rate, forests will cease to exist within 2-3 years. Since 1970, food aid to Haiti has risen seven-fold (93U6).

Sub-Part [E7b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Caribbean - Jamaica ~

Forest cover in Jamaica decreased 3.3%/ year during 1980-86 (93G1).

Sub-Part [E7c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Caribbean - Puerto Rico ~
Puerto Rico (8897 km2) was originally 100% forested. 3700 km2 of forest remain (80U1?).

About 1/3 of Puerto Rico's original forest was rainforest (80U1).

Part [E8] ~ Forest Degradation - Mexico ~

In the Lacandon Rainforest in Chiapas in southern Mexico, human population has grown 25-fold since 1960, and tree cover has fallen from 90% to 30% (97R1). The Lacandon Rainforest in southern Mexico originally covered 15,000 km2 and was virtually uninhabited until the mid-20th century (97R1).

Ranching accounts for 60% of tropical forest loss in Mexico (97R1).

Over 60% of Mexico's original rainforest is now grazing land (mainly for cattle) (91J1).

A 12/3/01 study shows that Mexico lost 2.72 million acres of forests and jungles annually between 1993-2000. Mexico's Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources blamed the problem on expansion of farmland and grazing areas and, to a lesser degree, on illegal logging (Associated Press/ ABCNews.com, 12/5/01).

Before Cortez. the people of southern Mexico lived under a 223,000 km2 canopy of lowland jungle and mountain forest stretching from the Gulf to the Pacific. 24,000 km2 remain (88R1).

In 1970, Mexico's Lacandon Rainforest contained 12,200 km2 of rainforest. In 1988, about 6,100 km2 remained (88R1). (la)

Early explorers estimated that 40-50% of Mexico supported marketable timber. By 1950 that fraction was 10% (76E1).

As much as 68% of Mexico's forests have been lost by 1990 (94S2). As little as 17% of Mexico's forest is expected to remain by 2000 (94S2).

Mexico loses forest at 3500-5000 km2/ year (78B1).

Mountains of Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Ixmiquilpan, Zimapan, Pachuca, Chaucingo, Zacualpan, Temascaltepec, Tealpujahua and Parral were covered with dense forest 4 centuries ago. Now they are all rocky grasslands where goats must scratch for a living. These areas lost their forests to mining centers for mine timbers, but never recovered after the mines closed (76E1).

Deforestation rate in Mexico was 6150 km2/ year in 1987 (90W1).

Part [E9] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay ~

Sub-Part [E9a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Uruguay ~

Native forests are being degraded and destroyed by continued land-clearing for grazing and widespread indiscriminate cutting for fuel wood. Their primary value is erosion protection (80W4).

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SECTION (4-F) ~ Degradation data - Australia, Europe, and Oceania ~ [F1] Australia, [F2] Europe , [F3] Oceania,

Part [F1] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Australia ~

The Australian Continent averages 5000 km2/ year of deforestation (96U1). The National Greenhouse Gas Inventory reports the heaviest deforestation in Australia occurred in 1988 and 1990, when 7000 and 6500 km2 were cleared respectively (96U1).

Some 75% of Australia's original rainforest has been cleared. The remaining area at risk is 10,900 km2 (88D1). Over 50% of this is in Queensland.

Western Australia: 130,000 km2 of indigenous woodlands have been cleared, mostly in this century, to establish a mixed agricultural economy of cereal crops and sheep farming (90C1).

Under 50% of Australia's aboriginal tree cover remains (91J1).

Victoria: From 1972-87, 154 km2/ year were cleared on average. From 1989-93, forests were cleared at a rate of 104 km2/ year on average (96U1).

Queensland Vegetation Changes (Losses in % of 1974 Area) (96U1)
Plant Type - - - - - |Loss
Rain forest~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 5%
Eucalypt Moist Forest|16
Eucalypt Dry Forest~ |36
Melaleuca Forest ~ ~ |50
Heathland~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ |34
All Bushland Lost~ ~ |33

Tasmania (Australian island): 1400 km2 of pine and eucalyptus plantations have been installed, much of it after native old-growth forests were felled and chipped (98M1). (la)

Tasmania: Deforestation (1972-88) in has been mostly for conversion to agriculture. 740 km2 of native vegetation has been converted to pasture. In addition, 240 km2 of pine plantation has been cleared. These losses cover 2.3% of Tasmania. This is an average of 190 km2/ year. The rate of deforestation has decreased by 40% (96U1).

Part [F2] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Europe ~

Sub-Part [F2a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Europe - England ~
During the past 3 decades, more ancient, mature woodlands have been destroyed in Britain than in the preceding four centuries. The cause is government attitudes favoring short-rotation softwood monocultures whose main product is pulp (81P1).

Sub-Part [F2b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Europe - Scotland ~

Some 70-80% of Scotland was originally forested. Natural forest cover today is 1%. Total tree cover is 8%, but most of this is composed of commercial monoculture plantations of non-native trees (93W3).

Caledonia: Original forest cover was 15,000 km2. Today, 38 scattered remnants totaling 120 km2 remain. It was cut in the 17th and 18th Centuries for timber (93W3). In the 19th Century Caledonia's forest was converted to grazing lands for sheep grazing (93W3).

Sub-Part [F2c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Europe - Sweden ~
Two UN studies have forecast expanding demand for timber products soon running ahead of what Sweden will have available for cutting (78B1).

In 1977 "The Economist" ran an article on "Sweden's Coming Timber Shortage" (78B1).
Other references claim that Sweden's forests are growing (See Chapter 3).

Part [F3] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania ~

Sub-Part [F3a] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania - Fiji Islands ~
One third of 18,100 km2 Fiji Islands has been cleared for pasture (p. 357 of (91J1)).

At current rates, there will be no forests on the island of Vanuatu (South Pacific) within 5 years (97U3).

Sub-Part [F3b] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania - New Caledonia ~
Over 50% of 300-mile-long New Caledonia has been cleared for pasture (p. 357 of (91J1)).

Sub-Part [F3c] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania - New Zealand ~ 
Forest cover of New Zealand is 5% of the original forest cover (p. 357 of (91J1)).

Sub-Part [F3d] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania - Solomon Islands ~
At present cutting rates, viable forests of the Solomon Islands are expected to last 8-15 years (94U2).

Sub-Part [F3e] ~ Forest Degradation ~ Oceania - New Guinea ~
At current cutting rates, there will be no forests in New Guinea within 8 years (97U3).

Sub-Part [F3f] - Forest Degradation - Oceania -Togo -
Forests of Togo have all but disappeared (92R2).

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