Edition 6, July 2007 (Updated January 2010)


(7-A) - Units Conversions - Precise - [A1] Lengths, [A2] Areas, [A3] Weights, [A4] Volumes,
(7-B) - Units Conversions - Imprecise - [B1] logs to lumber, [B2] Wood to Charcoal, [B3] Wood to Energy, [B4] Paper to Paper (recycling) , [B5] Wood to Paper, [B6] Water to Paper, [B7] Biomass to Carbon,
(7-C) - Densities -
(7-D) -
Definitions -
(7-E) -
Information Sources and Organizations on Forest Land Degradation -
(7-F) -
Databases -
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SECTION (7-A) - Conversion Factors - Precise - [A1] Lengths, [A2] Areas, [A3] Weights, [A4] Volumes

Part [A1] - Conversion Factors - Lengths -

foot (ft.) = 0.3048 meter (m.)
1.0 meter (m. or m) = 3.281 ft.
1.0 mile = 1.609 km.

Part [A2] - Conversion Factors - Areas -

2.47 acres = 1.0 hectare (ha.)
1.00 acre = 0.4047 hectare (ha.)
acre = 4047 sq. meters (m2)
247. acres = 1.0 km2
640. acres = 1.0 mile2 = 2.59 km2 = 259 ha.
100 ha. = 1.0 km2 (=1.0 (km)2)
1.0 sq. ft. = 0.0929 sq. meter (m2)

Part [A3] - Conversion Factors - Weights -

English ton = 907.18 kg.
1.0 English ton = 0.90718 metric ton (tonne) (t.)
1.1023 English ton = 1.0 metric ton (tonne) (t.)
2204.6 lb. = 1000 kg.
1.0 Gt. (giga-tonne) = 1 billion metric tonnes

Part [A4] - Conversion Factors - Volumes -

1.0 km3 (= 1.0(km)3)= 1 billion m3
1.0 acre-foot = 1234 m3= 325,850 gallons
1.0 cubic yard (yd3)= 0.7646 m3 (1.0 m3= 1.3079 yd3)
1.0 cubic foot (ft3 )= 0.028317 m3 (1.0 m3= 35.312 ft3)
1.0 gallon (gal.) = 0.003787 m3 (1.0 m3= 264.06 gallon)
1 cord (4'x4'x8') = 78 ft.3 of wood = 2.21 m3 **
**(3.6246 m3 according to Ref. (76F1), but this assumes a solid mass of wood (128 ft.3) - not a pile of logs with air spaces in between them)
1 std. cord Pulpwood = 85 ft3 = 2.41 m3 (solid wood) (96W1), (91W2)
1 cord (solid wood, pulpwood)= 2.4069 m3 (90D1)
1 cord (solid wood, non-pulp)= 2.2654 m3 (90D1)
Number of cords in 1 ton of:
spruce or fir - - - (green) 0.5556 (96W1)(91W2)
hemlock-tamarack - -(green) 0.5000 (96W1)(91W2)
pine (NE US, Canada)(green) 0.5263 (96W1)(91W2)
aspen-yellow poplar (green) 0.5263 (96W1)(91W2)(98W2)
oak-hickory - - - - (green) 0.3571 (91W2)(98W2)
other hardwoods - - (green) 0.3846 (96W1) (91W2) (98W2)

1000 bd.-ft. (logs-FAO)=~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 4.53 m3 (95N1)
1000 bd.-ft. (logs-Doyle Scale) = ~ | 4.59 m3 (95N1)
1000 bd.-ft. (logs-int'l 1/4" rule)=| 3.48 m3 (95N1)
1000 bd.-ft. (logs-Scribner) =~ ~ ~ | 3.90 m3 (95N1)

1 ft3 = 8.1371 bd.-ft. (Implying 1000 bd. ft.= 3.48 m3) (90D1) *
* The bd. ft. (board-foot) unit is not a good or true measure of wood volume. Because wood products other than dimension limber are becoming important, this unit is being replaced by the cubic meter (m3) (90D1).

For a rough conversion to board-ft., cubic ft. figures for the North (US) can be multiplied by 2.7, 3.7 for the South, and 5.1 for the West. These figures are valid for standing timber but may be low for timber cut. (Forest Watch, 7/91).
Softwood logs: 1 Mbf (thousand board-ft.) (International 1/4" log rule) = 149.1 ft3 (98W2)
Hardwood logs 1 Mbf (thousand board-ft.) (International 1/4" log rule) = 153.0 ft3 (98W2)

Comments: Conversions of board-ft. (bf) or thousands of board-ft. (Mbf) to ft3 or m3 has a wide range of conversion factors. Try to avoid using board-ft. The industry is getting away from this measure - apparently by some international agreement.

NOTE: This document sometimes gives numbers in English units. However the preferred system of units is the metric system - tonnes (or "t."), meters (m) and kilometers (km.) since only 1-2 of the 180+ nations persist in using cumbersome English units. Even in the US, nearly all technical, scientific, and medical people use metric units.

In this document, as is standard practice, km2 etc. mean (km)2 etc.

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SECTION (7-B) - Conversion Factors - Imprecise - [B1] logs to lumber, [B2] Wood to Charcoal, [B3] Wood to Energy, [B4]~ Paper to Paper (recycling) , [B5] Wood to Paper, [B6] Water to Paper,

Part [B1] - Logs to lumber (76F1)

100 m3 of green logs produce 63 m3 of rough green lumber + 10 m3 of sawdust + 27 m3 of wood chips. 63 m3 of rough green lumber produce 60 m3 of rough dry lumber (after being kiln-dried). 60 m3 of rough dry lumber produce 45 m3 of finished lumber + 15 m3 of shavings and trim (76F1).

100 m3 of green logs produce 55 m3 of green veneer that produce 52 m3 of dry veneer, which produce 45 m3 of finished plywood (+ 5 m3 depending on the diameter of the logs) (76F1). Comments: These numbers indicate a 5% shrinkage of volume when wood is dried (1.67% linear shrinkage).

Part [B2] - Conversions - Wood to Charcoal -

In charcoal production, the ratio of carbon input in the form of wood to carbon output in the form of charcoal ranges from 1.2-2.0 (Ayres et al, 1987 in (91A1)) (Charcoal is produced by heating wood in a system lacking oxygen so as to remove water and other volatile constituents, making the energy content of charcoal greater (per unit weight) than wood.) The process is sometimes called pyrolysis. Charcoal is used in preference to wood to save transportation costs, or to achieve a higher temperature, typically in metallurgical operations.

Part [B3] - Conversions - Wood to Energy -

Wood Type - - - |Million | Million
- - - - - - - - | BTU/ton| BTU/tonne
Softwood (green)| ~ 9.0~ | 9.9 (93W4)(98W1)
Hardwood (green)| ~ 8.6~ | 9.5 (93W4)(98W1)

Wood | 0.3 tonne oil/ m3 (91D1)
Wood | 7500 BTU/ lb. (79S4)
Comments: This is equivalent to 15 million BTU/ ton (apparently of dry wood).

Part [B4] - paper to paper (recycling) -

Paper fibers can only be recycled 5-6 times before they become too weak for further use (99A1).

Part [B5] - Conversions - Wood to paper -

To make a tonne of virgin paper requires 2-3.5 tonnes of trees being bought to the mill (99A2).

Lignin removal is what makes the pulping process so energy- and chemical-intensive. Lignin makes up 23-34% of wood fibers (9-15% of non-wood raw-materials for paper making) (99A2).

Part [B6] - Conversions - Water to Paper -

To make a tonne of virgin paper fiber requires using 44-80 tonnes of water (depending on paper grade) (99A2).

Part [B7] - Conversions - Biomass to Carbon -

(Biomass-carbon) Globally, each cubic meter of growing stock equals, on average, 1 tonne of above-ground biomass, 1.3 tonnes of total biomass and 0.7 tonnes of carbon in (total) biomass (05F1). Comments: Generally, the percentage of carbon in (dry) biomass is assumed to be about 45% carbon. See Section (7-C) of this literature review on units conversions to convert from wet biomass to dry biomass. Drying wood typically involves a 10% loss in weight.

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SECTION (7-C) - Densities -

Ref. (91D1) uses 0.733 tonne dry matter/ m3 (possibly meaning m3 of dry matter). Comments: This density is for a fairly dense, dry hardwood.
wood~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.666 tonne/m3 (=0.6657 grams/cm3) (91J2)
softwood~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.56 tonne/m3 ((91M1) p.803)
hardwood~ ~ ~ ~ | 0.64 tonne/m3 ((91M1) p.803)
softwood (green)| 0.027 ton/ft3 (0.867 t/m3) (93W4)(98W1)
hardwood (green)| 0.033 ton/ft3 (1.059 t/m3) (93W4)(98W1)

The moisture content of wood in growing trees ("green" wood) is about 10% by weight (91J2), so drying wood to create "dry matter" would entail a 10% loss of weight and 5% of volume shrinkage. (See "Conversion of Logs to Lumber" above.) Comments: The table of densities of common temperate species (see below) indicates a moisture content of green wood of about 25%.

To convert m3 of green wood to dry weight, use the conversions 438 kg. dry wood/ m3 of green softwood, and 525 kg. dry wood/ m3 of green hardwood (76S1). The US average is 467 kg. dry wood/ m3 of green wood (76S1).

Densities of Tropical Wood (tonnes/ m3) (84B4)
Region |Broadleaf|Coniferous
America| 0.62~ ~ | 0.46
Africa | 0.58~ ~ | 0.45
Asia ~ | 0.57~ ~ | 0.52

Densities of Common Temperate Woods in lb/ ft3 and (tonne/ m3) (93W4)
Hardwood - - - -| - green | dry
Yellow Poplar ~ |38(.609) |29(.465)
Amer. Basswood~ |41(.657) |26(.416)
Quaking Aspen ~ |43(.689) |27(.432)
Black Cherry~ ~ |46(.737) |35(.561)
white Ash ~ ~ ~ |48(.769) |42(.673)
Red Maple ~ ~ ~ |50(.801) |40(.641)
American Beech~ |54(.865) |45(.721)
Yellow Birch~ ~ |57(.913) | - - - 
White Oak ~ ~ ~ |62(.993) |48(.769)
Hickories ~ ~ ~ |64(1.025)|51(.817)
Softwood~ ~ ~ ~ | green ~ | dry
White Spruce~ ~ |35(.561) |28(.449)
East. Wh. Spruce|36(.517) |25(.400)
Balsam Fir~ ~ ~ |45(.721) | - - - 
Red Pine~ ~ ~ ~ |42(.673) |34(.545)
Eastern Hemlock |50(.801) |31(.497)

62.43 lb/ ft3= 1 tonne/ m3 = 1 gram/ cc
Assuming 5% volume-shrinkage on drying (76F1), these numbers permit a calculation of moisture contents of these woods. E.g. for yellow poplar, the moisture content is (100- 95*0.465/ 0.609) = 27.5% moisture by weight.

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SECTION (7-D) - Definitions -

Acre: the English unit of land area (247 acres = 1 km2; 2.47 acres = 1.0 hectare (ha.); 640 acres = 1 mile2) (This document uses km2 almost exclusively as the unit of land area.) (See Units Conversions below.).
Afforestation: Establishment of a forest cover on land that has not had a forest cover for a very long period of time (See "reforestation").
Afforestation: Afforestation is the conversion from other land uses into forest, or the increase of the canopy cover to above the 10% threshold. Afforestation is the reverse of deforestation and includes areas that are actively converted from other land uses into forest through silvicultural measures. Afforestation also includes natural transitions into forest, for example on abandoned agricultural land or in burnt-over areas that have not been classified as forest during the barren period. As for deforestation, the conversion should be long-term, that is areas where the transition into forest is expected to last less than ten years, for example due to recurring fires, should not be classified as afforestation areas. The concept "long-term" is central in this definition and is defined as ten years. Local climatological conditions, land use contexts or the purpose of the analysis may however justify that a longer time frame is used (01F1).
Anthropogenic: Caused by the actions of Man as opposed to natural causes.
Arid Land: Land receiving 10-25 cm. of rainfall annually (85D1).
Arid Land: Land receiving 10 inches or less of rainfall in cool regions and 15-20 inches of rainfall in hot or tropical regions (94O1).
Biota: The flora and fauna of a region.
BLM: Bureau of Land Management, (of the US Department of the Interior).
Board foot (bf.): A volume of wood (lumber) 12"x12"x1" (NOTE: Converting from board-ft. to ft3 or m3 is impossible unless a conversion factor is cited in the same reference as the data. The number of board-ft. in one ft3 ranges from 4-18 in references cited in this document.
Boreal: of, related to, or growing in, northern- and mountainous parts of the northern hemisphere.
CEQ: Council on Environmental Quality (no longer exists).
Cerrado: Tropical savanna (93S1).
Chaparral: A dense, impenetrable thicket of shrubs or dwarf trees.
Climax: The highest ecological development of a plant community capable of perpetuation under the prevailing climatic and edaphic conditions (94O1).
Closed Forest: A forest which, viewed from above, reveals little or no under-story (The crown of each tree touches, or mixes with, the crowns of adjacent trees) (as opposed to open forest).
CMAI: Culmination of mean annual increment (the age of a stand of trees at which the growth rate, averaged over its life, is maximized).
Commercial Timberland (US definition): Land capable of growing at least 140 m3/ km2/ year (20 ft3/ acre/ year) (79S4). In many parts of the world, land well below this productivity level is managed for timber production (76B1).

(Land must be quite poor (or arid) to be unable to meet this criterion.)
Cord: a stack of pulpwood logs 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft. (about 78 ft3 of wood) (2.209 m3 (76F1))
d.b.h.: diameter of a tree trunk at breast-height.
DBH: diameter of a tree trunk at breast-height.
Deforestation: The removal of the forest and its replacement by another land use class, such as shifting or permanent agriculture, ranching, mining or water (usually from impoundments). By definition, logging does not in itself result in deforestation, if the forest is allowed to regenerate. Reforestation refers to the re-establishment of forest formations after a temporary condition with a crown cover density of less than 10% (01F1).
Deforestation: Deforestation is the conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of tree canopy cover below the 10% threshold. Deforestation implies the long-term or permanent loss of forest cover. Such a loss can only be caused and maintained through a continued man-induced or natural perturbation. Deforestation includes, for example, areas of forest converted to agriculture (including agro-forestry), pasture, water reservoirs and urban areas. The term specifically excludes areas where the trees have been removed, due, for example, to harvesting or logging, and where the forest is expected to regenerate naturally or with the aid of silvicultural measures within the long-term. In areas of shifting agriculture, forest, forest fallow and agricultural lands appear in a dynamic pattern where deforestation and the return of forest occur frequently in small patches. To simplify reporting of such areas, the net change over a larger area is typically used. Deforestation also includes areas where over-utilization or changing environmental conditions, influence the forest to an extent that it cannot (currently) sustain a tree cover above the 10% threshold, for example burnt-over areas where severe ground conditions or recurring fires for the long-term prevents the return of forest formations, or areas that after clear-cutting cannot regenerate because of frost, competing vegetation, or other natural conditions. The concept "long-term" is central in this definition and is defined as ten years. Local climatological conditions, land use contexts or the purpose of the analysis may however justify that a longer time frame is used (01F1).
Deforestation: Effectively permanent reduction of the productivity of the land in terms of the values associated with trees. For example, conversion of forest land to urban land, cropland, grazing land, etc. would be considered deforestation. If, at some later date, the land were converted back to forest, the process would be considered reforestation or afforestation. Merely cutting, burning, or killing trees is not necessarily deforestation. Cutting trees long before maturity should be considered at least partial deforestation since the productivity of the land (in terms of tree-related values) is significantly reduced or eliminated.
Deforestation: Conversion of forests to other uses such as croplands or shifting cultivation. Forestland that has been logged and left to regenerate are not counted as deforested, nor is forestland converted to plantations (FAO definition) (98A1) (98A2).
Deforestation: reduction of tree (crown?) cover to under 20% in developed countries, under 10% in developing countries (FAO) (98A2).
Desertification: The process of removal of the soil from a region so that precipitation quickly evaporates or runs into underground aquifers, giving the region the appearance and characteristics of a desert, even though precipitation levels would suggest a non-desert; the creation of a "well-rained-upon desert". Comments: This term became common with the 9/77 UN Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) in Nairobi, Kenya.
D.B.H.: Diameter at breast height (the diameter of a tree trunk 4 feet above the ground).
Desertification: The diminution or destruction of the biological potential of land that can lead to desert-like conditions (definition of UNCOD) (85D1) (Dregne's definition is given on p. 19 of Ref. (85D1)).
Desertification: The process of impoverishment and deterioration of terrestrial ecosystems under the impact of Man that can be measured by reduced productivity of desirable plants, undesirable alterations in biomass, and diversity of micro- and macro-fauna and flora, accelerated soil erosion, and increased hazards for human occupancy (78D1).
of, or related to, soil.
Fallow: idle. Fallowed cropland is cropland not planted in crops for one or more growing season to allow time for soil moisture content to be restored (in the case of arid cropland), or to allow time for soil nutrients to be restored (in the case of shifting cultivation on tropical forest lands).
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization (part of United Nations). It compiles and publishes information on agricultural-, forest- and fishery production and resources (also water resources) on a global, regional or national basis. (See Section (7-F) of this Chapter - Databases.)
FLPMA: Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (p. 371 of (91J1)).
Forest: Forests are lands of more than 0.5 ha, with a tree canopy cover of more than 10%, which are not primarily under agricultural or urban land use (
01F1). Forests are determined both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters in situ. Areas under reforestation which have yet to reach a crown density of 10% or tree height of 5 m are included, as are temporarily unstocked areas, resulting from human intervention or natural causes, that are expected to regenerate. The term specifically includes: forest nurseries and seed orchards that constitute an integral part of the forest; forest roads, firebreaks and other small open areas; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with an area of more than 0.5 ha and width of more than 20 m; plantations primarily used for forestry purposes, including rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands. The term specifically excludes trees planted primarily for agricultural production, for example in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems (01F1).
Forest: "Natural Forest" + Forest Plantations (FAO definition) (97B2).
Forest degradation: Forest degradation is a reduction of the canopy cover or stocking within a forest. For the purpose of having a harmonized set of forest and forest change definitions, that also is measurable with conventional techniques, forest degradation is assumed to be indicated by the reduction of canopy cover and/or stocking of the forest through logging, fire, wind-felling or other events, provided that the canopy cover stays above 10% (cf. definition of forest). In a more general sense, forest degradation is the long-term reduction of the overall potential supply of benefits from the forest, which includes wood, biodiversity and any other product or service (
Forest ecosystem: (IGBP definition) the area dominated by trees forming a closed or partially closed canopy (
Forest ecosystem: (FAO definition) all areas having a minimum crown cover of 10% and a minimum tree height of 5 m. (
Frontier Forest: Areas of large, ecologically intact and relatively undisturbed natural forests (98A2).
GAO: General Accounting Office. It examines the financial aspects of government agencies in an effort to point out problems and inefficiencies.
Growing Stock: the stem-volume of live trees (92K1) (also called "merchantable stem volume") (94W4)) Trees 12.7 cm.+ in diameter (91M1).
Gt.: Giga-tonne (one billion metric tons or 1015 grams).
ha. (hectare): The internationally accepted unit of land area.
1.0 ha.= 2.47 acres; 100 ha.= 1 km2; 259 ha.= 1.0 square mile
IGBP: International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (
ITTO: International Tropical Timber Organization (a 69-nation trade group based in Japan).
Hyper-arid Region: Lands receiving under 10 cm/ year of rainfall (85D1).
km (kilometer): A measure of distance.
1.0 km.= 1000 meters; 1.6091 km.= 1.0 mile; 2.59 km2 (=2.59 (km)2)= 1.0 mile2
LDC: Less-Developed Country (Third World nation).
Merchantable: salable at a profit. (e.g. when the price timber will bring in the marketplace exceeds the cost of cutting the timber and hauling it to market, the timber is said to be merchantable.).
Net Primary Productivity (NPP): The rate at which carbon from CO2 in the atmosphere is converted, by photosynthesis, to live organic matter (leaves, twigs, branches, woody fiber, roots, grasses, seaweed, phytoplankton, etc.).
NFMA: National Forest Management Act of 1976 (See Section (6-C) of Chapter 6).
NRDC: Natural Resources Defense Council (environmental organization -See Section (7-E)).
FAO has defined NWFPs as follows: "Non-wood forest products consist of goods of biological origin other than wood, derived from forests, 'other wooded land' and 'trees outside forests'" (
Open Forest: a forest with significant spacing between trees, allowing significant sunlight to reach the understory (frequently grasslands in open forests caused by arid climates) (as opposed to closed forests).
Order-of-Magnitude: a factor of ten, without high accuracy.
Other land: Other land is, for the purpose of forestry, any land not classified as forest or other wooded land as defined above. Includes agricultural land, meadows and pastures, built-on areas, barren land, etc (
Other wooded land: Other Wooded Land is land with a canopy cover of 5-10% of trees able to reach a height of 5 m in situ; or a canopy cover of more than 10% when smaller trees, shrubs and bushes are included (
Phytomass: Plant mass.
Pinion: Any of various low-growing nut pines of western North America.
Plantation (forest): forests that have considerable human intervention in their establishment and management. (Note that no clear line divides a forest "plantation" from an intensely managed "secondary forest".) ((
00W1), p. 93).
Precipitation: Rainfall plus the equivalent amount of snowfall.
- - - - - Precipitation = run-off + transpiration.
Reforestation: Reforestation is the re-establishment of forest formations after a temporary condition with less than 10% canopy cover due to human-induced or natural perturbations. The definition of forest clearly states that forests under regeneration are considered as forests even if the canopy cover is temporarily below 10%. Many forest management regimes include clear-cutting followed by regeneration, and several natural processes, notably forest fires and windfalls, may lead to a temporary situation with less than 10% canopy cover. In these cases, the area is considered as forest, provided that the re-establishment (i.e. reforestation) to above 10% canopy cover takes place within the relatively near future. As for deforestation, the time frame is central. The concept "temporary" is central in this definition and is defined as less than ten years. Local climatological or land use contexts, or the purpose of the analysis, may however justify that a longer time frame is used (
Reforestation: Restoring the land to the status of forest land by either planting trees or creating conditions necessary for natural regeneration of trees, and doing so not long after deforestation.
RFF: Resources For the Future.
Riparian: Streamside; strongly affected by a nearby waterway.
Roundwood ("Industrial Roundwood"): logs and pulpwood (as opposed to firewood) (92V1). The definition used in forest surveys by the USFS is the merchantable stems or boles of trees in the forest at least 5" d.b.h., including all wood above a one-ft. high stump, and extending up to a 4" top (76S1).
Roundwood: logs cut for industrial lumber and paper products, or used for fuelwood and charcoal (98A1). (Fuelwood collected by rural households is usually dead wood that does not contribute to deforestation (98A1).) Comments: It seems that some definitions of roundwood include firewood and some do not. Perhaps "industrial" roundwood excludes firewood and just "roundwood" includes logs cut for firewood but not branches, deadwood etc.
Run-off: Water that leaves the land by running off the land surface, or by sinking into an underground aquifer. Run-off = Precipitation - Transpiration.
Sapling: A live tree over 1" d.b.h. and under 5" d.b.h. (93W4). (d.b.h. means diameter at breast-height, i.e. diameter at 4 feet above the ground.
Savanna: A grass land containing scattered trees ("open forest"). Tropical savannas are usually arid and poor grazing lands.
Sawtimber: Live trees of commercial species containing at least one 12-ft. saw log or 2 non-contiguous 8-ft. logs, and meeting regional specs for freedom from defects. Softwood sawtimber must be at least 9" DBH. Hardwood sawtimber must be at least 11" d.b.h. (80H1).
SCS: United States Soil Conservation Service (founded in 1935).
Seedling: A live tree under 1" d.b.h. (93W4).
Semi-arid Land: Lands receiving rainfall at an average rate of 25-50 cm./ year (85D1).
Shinnery: A dense growth of small trees; one of the scrub oaks in the west and southwestern US.
Steppe: a vast, level, treeless tract in southeastern Europe or Asia; arid land with xerophilous vegetation found usually in regions of extreme temperature range and loess (wind-deposited) soil.
Stumpage Value (Price): The financial value (price) of timber standing in the forest. (A buyer of "stumpage" would cut the trees and transport the logs at his own expense.).
Sub-Humid Land: Lands receiving 50-75 cm. of rainfall annually (85D1).
Succession (plant-): A vegetational-development process whereby an area becomes successively occupied by plant communities of higher ecological order (94O1). Comments: "higher ecological order" means closer to a climax state.
t.: metric ton (See tonne) (=1.1023 English ton). (a unit of weight)
Taiga: Typically a region containing stands of larches, spruce, aspen, birch, fir, pine, poplar, and tamarack among lakes, marshes and bogs in a northern climate (91C1).
Timberline: where there are 2 months or less of average temperatures over 50 degrees F. (George Wuerthner, posting to
RangeNet@egroups.com, 9/17/00).
Tonne: a metric ton; (often abbreviated as "t.") (See Gt.).
1.0 tonne= 1000 kg.; 1.0 tonne= 1.1023 English tons= 2204.6 lbs.
Transpiration (noun): water that leaves the land or its vegetation by evaporation into the air. Transpiration = precipitation - runoff: (adj.) evaporative.
Tundra: Marshy plain.
UNCOD: United Nations Conference on Desertification, held 9/77 in Kenya.
UNEP: United Nations Environmental Program (a sponsor of studies on global environmental problems such as soil erosion, deforestation, over-grazing, fishery degradation, etc.).
US: United States.
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture.
USDI: United States Department of the Interior.
USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
USFS: United States Forest Service.
USGS: United States Geological Survey.

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SECTION (7-E) - Information Sources and Organizations Relevant to Forest Degradation -

Alaskan Boreal Forest Council, 1707 Red Fox Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99079 (95A2).
American Land Forum, 1025 Vermont Av. NW, Washington DC 20005.
Association of Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, P.O. Box 11615, Eugene, OR 97440-9958 (503-484-2692) (3/93).

Calgary Rainforest Action Group, (crag@freenet.calgary.ab.ca) 7252 Silver Spring Road NW, Calgary, AB T3B 4A2 (concerned about global deforestation, especially rain forests and boreal forests) (5/97).
Carrying Capacity Network, 2000 P St. NW, Suite 240, Washington DC 20036 (202-879-3044 or 1-800-466-4866 or 202-296-4548, fax 202-296-4609) Offers numerous publications related to carrying-capacity issues. (1995).
Cascade Holistic Economic Consultants, 14417 S.E. Laurie, Oak Grove, OR 97267.
The Conservation Foundation, 1255 23rd St. NW, Washington DC 20037.
Conservation Int'l, 1015 18th St. NW, Suite 1002, Washington DC 20036.

Defenders of the Rainforest, 9 Perkins Terrace, Worchester MA 01605-3706 (508-756-1819) (LUMANS@worldnet.att.net) (5/97).
Defensores Del Bosque Chileno, Antonia Lopez del Bello 024 Providencia, Santiago, Chile telephone (56-2) 737-4280, (bosquech@entelchile.net) 1997 (trying to create ecologically-sustainable forest policies and institutions in Chile).
Dogwood Alliance (focuses mainly on southern US forest issues) (address unknown) (97L1).

Earth Island Institute 300 Broadway, Suite 28, San Francisco CA 94133 (415-788-3666).
Earthlife Foundation (USA), Suite 700, 1990 M St. N.W., Washington DC 20036 (202-223-4300). See Global Perspectives Quarterly, Fall 1983, Gerald O. Barney and Patricia Maimon, editors, p.11. (They undertake sustainable-development business projects.).
Earthroots, 251-401 Richmond St. West, Toronto, ON M5V 3A8 (a Canadian organizations involved in boreal forest issues) (95A2).
Environmental Defense Fund, 1616 P St. NW, Suite 150 Washington DC 20036.
Environmental Defense Fund, 257 Park Av. South, New York NY 10010 (212-686-4191).
Environmental Protection Agency, Press Office, Room 329, West Tower, A-107, 401 M Street SW, Washington DC 20460.

Food and Agriculture Organization (part of United Nations). Obtain a list of publications from UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham MD 20706-4391.

Global Perspectives Quarterly, Gerald O. Barney and Patricia Maimon, eds., P.O. Box 33247, Decatur GA 30033 (a newsletter) (as of 1983).
Global Tomorrow Coalition, 1325 G St. NW, Suite 915, Washington DC 20005
Greenpeace, 1436 U St. NW, Washington DC 200009.

High Country News, P.O.Box 1090, Paonia CO 81428 (303-527-4898).

Izaak Walton League of America, 707 Conservation Lane, Gaithersburg MD 20878-2983 (319-382-2947) (1994).

National Audubon Society, 801 Pennsylvania Av. S.E., Washington DC 20003.
National Audubon Society, 950 Third Ave, New York NY 10022 (212-832-3200).
National Resources Defense Council 71 Stevenson St. #1825, San Francisco, CA 94105 (415-777-0220).
National Wildlife Federation 1412 16th St. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-637-3700).
National Wildlife Federation 1400 16th St. NW, Washington DC 20036.
Native Forest Action of New Zealand (address unknown).
Native Forest Network of the US (address unknown).

Oregon Natural Resources Council, 5825 North Greeley, Portland OR 97217-4145 (503-283-6343) (sc@onrc.org) (http://www.onrc.org/onrc/) (5/97) Interested in deforestation issues, salmon protection.

Pacific Environmental and Resources Center, 1055 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (an organizations involved in boreal forest issues) (95A2).
Population-Environment Balance, 1325 G St. NW, Suite 1003, Washington DC 20005 (202-879-3000).
Project Lemu of Argentina (address unknown).
Prospective Decision Models, Inc., Commercial and Academic Applications, Dept. 23645, Mercantile Road, Beachwood, OH 44122 (See Global Perspectives Quarterly, Fall 1983, p.6) They do global modelling ala M. Mesarovic.

Rain-forest Information Centre of Australia (address unknown).
Rain-forest Action Network, 301 Broadway Suite A, San Francisco CA 94133.
The Rainforest Foundation, 1776 Broadway 14th Fl., New York NY 10019.
Resources for the Future, Washington DC 20036.

Save America's Forests, 4 Library Court SE, Washington, DC 20003 (11/95).
Sierra Club, 730 Polk St., San Francisco CA 94109 (415-776-2211).
Southeast Alaska Conservation Council, P.O. Box 021692, Juneau, Alaska 99802, or c/o Survival International USA, 2121 Decatur Pl NW, Washington DC 20008.

Turner Foundation, Inc., P.O. Box 550026, Atlanta GA 30355 (404-681-9900). Founded in 1990 to support non-profit organizations in their work to preserve the Earth and its elements. It supports activities that draw attention to the issue of the human carrying-capacity of the Earth.

Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, P.O. Box 9105, Cambridge MA 02238-9105. They do a variety of types of advocacy in issues that include population, agriculture and the environment.

Western Canada Wilderness Committee, #4, 10121 Whyte Ave., Edmonton ALB T6E 1Z5 (a Canadian organizations involved in boreal forest issues) (95A2).
Wild Earth, P.O. Box 492, Canton NY 13617 (315-379-9940) (quarterly journal).
World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433. They publish an annual "World Development Report" full of useful statistics and summaries.
World Environment Center, 605 Third Av. 17th Floor, New York NY 10158 (See Global Perspectives Quarterrly., Fall 1983, p.4) Publish "World Environment Report" - 24/ year.
World Resources Institute, 1735 New York Av. NW, Washington DC 20006.
World Resources Institute, 1750 New York Av., Suite 230, Washington DC 20006, (as of 1987) 1709 New York Av. NW, Washington DC 20006 (1995). They publish numerous books on natural resource issues.
Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036 (as of 1995) 202-452-1999; fax 202-296-7365. They publish numerous books and reports on carrying-capacity issues.

SECTION (7-F) - Databases -
World Resources 2005

The FAOSTAT Database: (About 2005)

A massive compilation by the FAO of data on issues related to agriculture, forest management, grazing lands, fisheries and other related issues can be accessed by visiting http://apps.fao.org. Access to the FAOSTAT database itself costs about $1200/ year for residents of developed countries. (Access is free to residents of developing nations.) (Could not be reached on 2/8/07)

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, FRA Forestry Paper 147, 2005, http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/fra/en (05F1) The entire report can be downloaded as a *.pdf file (6 MB) Key findings can be downloaded as a *.pdf report (1.43 MB). Individual chapters and appendices (annexes) can also be downloaded. Tables of data in Annex 3 tabulate the following data by nation and region for 229 countries and territories:
Land area
Population density
Population growth rate
Percent of the population that is rural
GDP/ Capita
GDP/ Capita growth rate
Forest area
% of land area that is forest area
Area of "other wooded lands"
Area of other lands (lands not wooded)
Area of inland water
Total land area
Forest area in 1990, 2000 and 2005
Rate of change of forest area (during 1990-2000 and during 2000-2005) (in ha/ year and %/ year)
Area of "other wooded land" (in 1990, 2000 and 2005)
Ownership of forest land (whether public, private, or "other")
Ownership of other wooded land (whether public, private, or "other")
Areas of various categories of forest land (primary, modified natural, semi-natural, productive plantations)
Area of primary forest, percent of total forest that is primary forest,
Rate of change of area of primary forest land (during 1990-2000 and 2000-2005).
Area of forest plantation in ha and in % of total forest area;
Rate of change of forest plantation area during ______
Growing stock (m3/ ha, total m3 and percent commercial)
Area of other wooded land, growing stock on other wooded land in m3.
Change in growing stock in m3/ year during 1990-2000 and during 2000-2005.
Change in growing stock per ha (m3/ ha/ year) during 1990-2000 and 2000-2005.
Above-ground biomass of forests (tonnes)
Below-ground biomass of forests (tonnes)
Dead wood biomass of forests (tonnes)
Above-ground biomass of other wooded land (tonnes)
Below-ground biomass of other wooded lands (tonnes)
Dead wood biomass of other wooded lands (tonnes)
Removal rate of wood products during 1990 and 2000 (m3 o.b./ year),
Removal rate of industrial roundwood in 2005 (m3 o. b./ year),
Removal rate of fuelwood in 2005 (m3 o.b./ year). ("o.b." means "over bark.")
Removal rate of wood products in 2005 as a % of 2005 growing stock.
Value of industrial roundwood, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products in 2005 (US$)

2005 World Population Data Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau http://www.prb.org/pdf05/05WorldDataSheet_Eng.pdf (304 KB) tabulates, by country and by region, the area of country or region in square miles.
2005 World Population Data Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau http://www.prb.org/pdf05/05WorldDataSheet_Eng.pdf (304 KB) tabulates, by country and by region, population density in people per square mile.

World Resources 2005 - CONTENTS:

Visit http://population.wri.org/worldresources2005-pub-4073.html

http://population.wri.org/pubs_pdf.cfm?PubID=4073 permits you to download a .pdf file of the entire document (264 pages, 15 MB)

The following tables and accompanying commentary have been printed:

NOTE: The page numbers given below are those you ask the .pdf software to take you to.
The actual page numbers printed on the document's pages are significantly different.

WORLD RESOURCES 2005 Data Tables (Introduction to tables) (p. 148-149).

Tables - Gender and Development (p.161-164)
~ ~ ~ Annual Earned Income (International dollars) (1991-2000) (Women and Men)
~ ~ ~ (For more information visit jttp://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/population)

Tables - Income and Poverty (p.165-168)
~ ~ ~ GDP per Capita PPP (International $) (2002)
~ ~ ~ National Poverty Rate (%) (Total, Urban, Rural)
~ ~ ~ Percent of Population living on less than $1/day and % living on less than $2/ day.
~ ~ ~ For more information visit http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/Economics

Tables - Economics and Financial Flows (p.169-172)
~ ~ ~ GDP (Constant 1995 US$)
~ ~ ~ Average Annual Growth Rate of GDP (%) (1992-2002)
~ ~ ~ GDP per Capita (dollars) (2002)
~ ~ ~ Distribution of GDP by Sector (%) (Agriculture, Industry, Services) in 2002)
~ ~ ~ Official Development Assistance and Aid (2002)
~ ~ ~ For more information visit http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/Economics

Tables - Water Resources and Fisheries (p.185-188)
~ ~ ~ Actual Renewable Water Resources (Total: km3) (Per-Capita in m3/ person)
~ ~ ~ Annual Water Withdrawals (Total in km3) (Per-Capita (m3/ person in 2000)
~ ~ ~ Annual Water Withdrawals by Sector in 2000 (Agriculture, Industry, Domestic)
~ ~ ~ Inland/Marine Fisheries Production (in 1000 metric tonnes) (Capture) (Aquaculture)
~ ~ ~ Trade in Fish and Fisheries Products (in millions of US$) (2000-2002) (Imports) (Exports)
~ ~ ~ For more information visit http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/freshwater

Tables - Land Use and Human Settlement (p.193-196)
~ ~ ~ Total land area (in 2002)
~ ~ ~ Land Area Classifications - Forested (MODIS Satellite Imagery in 2000 - more than 50% cover,
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ more than 10%)
~ ~ ~ Land Area Classifications - Forested (FAO Estimate more than 10% cover in 1990 and 2000)
~ ~ ~ Land Area Classifications - Agriculture - Arable and Permanent croplands (1992 and 2002)
~ ~ ~ Land Area Classifications - Agriculture - Permanent Pasture (1992 and 2002)
~ ~ ~ Land Area Classifications - drylands.
~ ~ ~ Population Density (People/ km2 in 2000)
~ ~ ~ For more information visit http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/forests

Tables - Food and Agriculture (p.197-200)
~ ~ ~ Agricultural Land Area (in 2002)
~ ~ ~ Irrigated Cropland as a Percent of Total Land (2002)
~ ~ ~ Labor Inputs to Agriculture (workers/ ha) (2001)
~ ~ ~ Fertilizer Applied (kg/ ha) (2001)
~ ~ ~ Water Withdrawals (m3/ ha) (2000)
~ ~ ~ Calorie Supply per Capita (kcal/ person/ day) (2002)
~ ~ ~ Share of Calorie Supply from Animal Products (2002)
~ ~ ~ For more information visit http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/agriculture
~ ~ ~ More data tables are available on line at Earthtrends http://earthtrends.wri.org
(If you don't want graphics, just data, see the same information at http://earthtrends.wri.org/text.)
(A CD-ROM (also hardcopy) of Earthtrends data is also available. Visit http://www.wristore.com)
Chapter 1 Reference Citations start on p. 204-207.
Chapter 2 Reference Citations start on p. 208-209.
Chapter 3 Reference Citations start on p. 210-212.
Chapter 4 Reference Citations start on p. 213-215.
Chapter 5 Reference Citations start on p. 216-???.
The Index (by subject) is on pages 220-228.

One huge database that is very useful is the World Bank’s "Little Green Data Book." Editions for 2005 through 2009 are available. Just Google "Little Green Data Book" and save the *.pdf file on your hard drive. It gives data country-by-country and region-by-region. The regional tables cover the seven regions East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the world as a whole. The tables listed below are for the year 2009. Other years will have small differences with the list below.
GDP ($ billions)
GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($)
Urban population (% of total)
Urban population growth (average annual %, 1990–2007)
Population growth (average annual %, 1990–2007)
Population (millions)
Agricultural land (% of land area)
Agricultural productivity (value added per worker, 2000 $)
Food production index (1999–2001 = 100)
Population density, rural (people /sq. km of arable land)
Forest area (% of land area)
Deforestation (average annual %, (1990–2005))
Nationally protected area (% of total land area)
GDP per unit of energy use (2005 PPP $/ kg oil equivalent)
Energy use per capita (kg oil equivalent)
Energy from biomass products and waste (% of total)
Electric power consumption per capita (kWh)
Electricity generated using fossil fuel (% of total)
Electricity generated by hydropower (% of total)
CO2 emissions per unit of GDP (kg/ 2005 PPP $)
CO2 emissions per capita (in metric tons)
CO2 emissions growth (%, 1990–2005)
Particulate matter (urban-pop.-weighted average, µg/ cubic meter)
Transport sector fuel consumption per capita (liters)
Internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters)
Freshwater withdrawal Total (% of internal resources)
Percent of total freshwater withdrawals by agriculture
Percent of total population with access to improved water source
Rural (% of rural population)
Urban (% of urban population)
Percent of total population with access to improved sanitation
Rural (% of rural population)
Urban (% of urban population)
Gross savings (% of GNI)
Consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI)
Education expenditure (% of GNI)
Energy depletion (% of GNI)
Mineral depletion (% of GNI)
Net forest depletion (% of GNI)
CO2 damage (% of GNI)
Particulate emission damage (% of GNI)
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI)

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Go to Top of this Chapter-Appendices
Go to Top this Review's Reference List
Go to Forest Land Degradation: A Global Perspective (Table of Contents)
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